ASSESSMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL GRADE STARCH PRODUCED FROM SOME LOCAL GRAINS-CORN, SORGHUM AND MILLET

S. O. Eze Eze, K. N. Alozie

Abstract


Sequel to the increasing need for the local sourcing of raw material for the production and improvement of quality for different types of industrial products, the assessment of pharmaceutical grade starch (PGS) produced through wet milling process of three different botanical sources-Corn (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Panicum miliaceum) was undertaken. The samples were collected from the Eke Okigwe Market, Imo   State, Nigeria, washed to rid them of any inherent impurities such as grit or sand, wet milled with mortar and pestle and water added to form a slurry followed by decantation, sieving , centrifuging, and bleaching. The pH ranges were adjusted with food grade sodium hydroxide (Merck) and deffating was done with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus .The percentage yields of Starch from the samples were 74.0, 69.0 and 63.8 respectively for corn, sorghum and millet. The quality assessment tests showed that corn starch with gelatinization temperature of 68.50-76.00 o C, a pH range of 6.50-8.00, total protein-0.08%, loss on drying-10.00%, and presence of iron-4.00ppm with the absence of foreign matter and sulphur dioxide conformed to the standards set by the International Starch Trading, Denmark. Sorghum and millet were found to have gelatinization temperature ranges of 65.00-75.00 o C and 55.50-65.00  o C, pH ranges-6.50-7.80 and 6.60-8.20, total protein 0.15% and 0.07%, loss on drying 11.00 and 13.00, presence of iron-6.00 ppm and 9.00 ppm  respectively were also of good quality with slight deviations as millet showed the presence of foreign matter and Sorghum has total proteins slightly above the standard. The starch from the three grains can be good sources of pharmaceutical grade starch.


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Chemical Society of Nigeria