FATTY ACIDS PROFILE, PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF UNFERMENTED AND FERMENTED PARKIA BIGLOBOSA (AFRICAN LOCUST BEANS) SEED OIL

G. K. Oloyede, T. I. Akintunde

Abstract


The African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) seed is one of the major sources of plant protein in African diet. Effect of fermentation on the chemical composition and physicochemical properties  of P. biglobosa seed oil was determined. The chemical composition of the unfermented and fermented seed oil was determined using Gas-Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) and physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC), while antioxidant activity was determined using the 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) method. The result revealed that the unfermented seed contained five constituents dominated with 11-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (49.70%) and linoleic acid (16.88%) while the fermented seed contained fifteen constituents with 13-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (25.30%) and oleic acid methyl ester (22.15%) being the major constituents. Palmitic acid methyl ester, methyl stearate and linoleic acid were common to both oils. The proximate compositions (moisture content, saponification acid, peroxide and ash values) of the unfermented seeds are higher than the fermented seeds. 14.383 % and 12.449 % alkaloid, 2.064 % and 1.947% flavonoid content were obtained from the unfermented and fermented seed oils respectively. The seed oils also showed significant activity as antioxidant using the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with 83.735% and 75.075% inhibition for the unfermented and fermented seed oils respectively. It can be concluded that the fermented seed oil contain more nutritional phytochemicals than the unfermented seeds, thus explained the effect of fermentation and reason for its use as condiment.

Keywords: Parkia biglobosa, Palmitic acid methyl ester, methyl stearate, Linoleic acid, phytate, fermentation


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Chemical Society of Nigeria