SOLVENT, TEMPERATURE AND TIME EFFECT ON THE YIELD AND PROPERTIES OF BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM TWO TYPES OF VEGETABLE OILS

A. A. Ibikunle, A. J. Olanrewaju, A. G. Taiwo

Abstract


The growing concerns about energy security and sustainability, environmental effects and over-reliance on Fossil fuel that emits enormous amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) which leads to climate change makes for the need for an alternative renewable, green, eco-acceptable and friendly fuel like Biodiesel. The effects of Methanol and Ethanol at different time and temperature using potassium hydroxide as a base trans-esterification catalyst on the yield and properties of crude Palm kernel and Soybean oils and biodiesels were investigated using standard analytical procedures. The crude Palm kernel and Soybean oils has appearance, colour, odour/taste, volatile matter, slip melting point and acid value were within but, net volume is a bit high while free fatty acid and iodine values are above permissible NIS 290: 2000 limit. The Biodiesel yield ranged from 71.2 to 98.2% and it increased with the time and temperatures of reaction for both solvents but methanol were generally higher than ethanol. The average density ranged from 0.84 to 0.90 g/cm3, viscosity at 40oC from 4.38 to 4.98 Cst and flash point from 134 to 148oC. Densities, viscosity, flash point except pour point of the Biodiesels were found to conform to ASTM standards making Soybean oil and Palm kernel oil suitable feedstock for high quality biodiesel.

Keywords: Methanol, ethanol, biodiesel (B100), crude palm kernel and soya bean oils


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Chemical Society of Nigeria