Chemical constituents of volatile and non-volatile extracts of Oncoba spinosa (Forssk)

Olaoye Solomon Balogun, Olayinka S. Lawal, Abdulkabir Oladele Oladimeji, Liu Zhiqiang


The essential oils from the leaf and stem bark of Oncoba spinosa were obtained through hydro-distillation while the non-volatile leaf extracts were obtained by solvent extraction. The essential oils and silylated extracts were analysed using GC-MS. A total of twenty-three compounds from leaf and fourteen from stem which accounted for 99.6% and 98.4% composition respectively were identified. The major chemical constituents of the leaf included methyl salicylate (22.3%), β-ionone (12.6%), neryl acetone (10.1%), E-2-tetradecen-1-ol (7.7%), 3-methyl-1,5-cyclooctadiene (7.5%), caryophyllene oxide (7.0%) and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (6.7%) while those found in the stem were tridecanoic (47.5%), copaene (7.4%), palmitic acid (6.7 %) and β-elemene (6.6%). Upon classification, the principal compounds found were terpeniods (41.6%) and derivatives of benzene (23.3%) for the leaf, and fatty acid derivatives (70.1%) and terpenoids (29.2%) for the stem bark. The silylated hexane extract of O. spinosa indicated fatty acids and isoprenoid based compounds as major components which accounted for 55.33% and 21.59% respectively while D-Mannose (33.08%) and D-fructofuranose (20.89%) were the major constituents of the defatted ethanolic extract.Thus, O. spinosa is composed of compounds with plethora of biological activities which could largely be responsible for its tradomedical uses.

Keywords: Oncoba spinosa; silylation; palmitic acid; terpenoids; GC-MS

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