Evaluation and Chemometric Analysis of the Mineral Profile of Locally Prepared Soups in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

R. B. Salau, M. T. Bisiriyu, A. Zalihat, A. Alheri, M. O. Aremu, I. O. Olushola, A. K. Mohammed

Abstract


Minerals are indispensable part of a complete diet for humans. This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of five of these minerals; three essential minerals (Sodium, Calcium, and Potassium), two trace minerals (Iron, and Copper) and a toxic metal (Lead) present in local soups in Minna, Niger State. The samples were purchased locally in triplicates from restaurants in Minna, Niger State. The soups were homogenized, weighed, dried, and then digested with proportionate combinations of HNO3, H2O2 and de-ionized water. The elements were determined using Atomic Absorption and Flame Emission Spectrophotometers. Microsoft Excel and MATLAB/PLS tool box software were used for Chemometrics analysis. Results indicate that Dahyen kubewa and Miyanya kuwa have prominent content of studied elements with relative higher values making them good source of essential mineral elements. The average concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Cu and Fe were respectively found within the ranges of 6.12–6.14, 0.67- 8.68, 4.84-45.30, 0.00-0.008 and 0.06-0.014 mgg-1. The values of the element expressed per serving dishes of the samples were appreciable relative to recommended daily intakes. This implies that the foods can be relevant in the management of Mineral Deficiency Diseases (MDD). Fe and Cu were below the toxic limit and lead was not detectable. The foods were found to be generally safe for consumption. Correlation analysis showed that Na and Ca or K as well as Fe and Cu have high correlation. These elements therefore constitute the unique element signature of the local soups in Minna. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of the mineral content data revealed two close substitute food pairs: Miyan yakuwa and Danyen kubewa as well as Miyan kuka and Miyan karkashi. The result implies that in cases of unavailability or scarcity of one of the pairs, the other paired food can be consumed. The paired foods have equivalent mineral content. The Principal Component Analysis loading-score biplot indicated that Miyan yakuwa, Danyen kubewa. Miyan agushi and Miyan taushe are calcium, sodium, and potassium rich soups. The result also reveals that Jan miya is relatively rich in copper and iron..Miyan kuka and Miyan Karkashi particularly have lower concentration of elements.

Key words: Minerals, local soups, Minna, chemometrics, Mineral Deficiency Diseases


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Chemical Society of Nigeria