PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM DACRYODES EDULIS SEEDS OIL USING GREEN ZnO AND HYDROGENATED ZnO CATALYSTS

J. L Konne, J.D. Onobun

Abstract


In this study, biodiesel was produced using Dacryodes edulis seeds oil which was extracted via solvent extraction method. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted seeds oil was determined using standard experimental procedures and the results obtained revealed the acid value as 3.70, melting point- 28 °C, free fatty acid-10.00 and density, 0.80Kg /m3. Biodiesel was produced from the seeds oil through transesterification process using green zinc oxide and hydrogenated zinc oxide catalysts tagged ZnO-PT and ZnO-PTH. ZnO-PT was synthesized by the reaction of aqueous solution of unripe plantain peels ash (green alkali) and zinc nitrate at 40 °C while H2 gas was passed over the dried ZnO-PT to form ZnO-PTH. The control experiment proceeded with the use of KOH in place of the green catalysts. The biodiesel produced was analyzed using standard experimental procedures and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) technique. The GC-FID analysis showed full conversion of all the constituent fatty acids to their respective fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as expected. The physicochemical parameters determined, showed slight variation in densities (0.816; 0.813; 0.817) Kg/m3, viscosities (4.95; 5.21; 5.40) cSt, flash point (65; 60; 60) °C, smoke point (50; 40, 40) °C and fire point (75; 70; 78) °C respectively, for the ZnO-PT, ZnO-PTH and KOH biodiesel samples. The results were comparable with the standard values of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM 651:2012) and European Standard for Biodiesel (EN14214:2012). This showed that these catalysts could serve as viable heterogeneous options in place of the conventional homogenous catalysts and its attendant separation issues.

Keywords: Dacryodesedulis seeds oil, transesterification, ZnO, ZnO-PT and ZnO-PTH


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Chemical Society of Nigeria