CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL USE OF ASYSTASIA GANGETICA (CHINESE VIOLET) AS AN ANTI-ULCER PLANT

I.O Eriamiatoe, M.O Edema, T. Eriamiatoe, G.E Okpara

Abstract


The whole plant extract of Asystasia gangetica (Chinese violet) was investigated for chemical constituents and anti-ulcer activity. The test animal used was albino/wister rat.  Asystasia gangetica (Chinese violet) is used in folklore medicine for various ailments like asthma, rheumatism and pains etc. Toxicity of the extract was determined using Dietrich„s method. The ability of the methanolic extract of Asystasia gangetica in preventing and treatment of ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats was investigated. The extract was prepared by Soxhlet Extraction with 80% methanol. The resultant extract of methanol was concentrated by removing the solvent using a rotary evaporator and stored in a refrigerator at 4oC. A yield of 18.6% w/w dry extract was obtained. The acute toxicity of the methanolic A.G extract showed no death or observable sign of toxicity at a dosage of 4000mg/kg given per os after 24hrs and to 14 days with 10g/kg body weight of the test animals. Using the ethanol induced ulcer model, 125mg/kg; 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg doses of the plant extract gave an ulcer index and percentage ulcer inhibition of (2.20±0.96, 42.61%), (1.60±0.67, 64.35%) and (0.20±0.18, 89.56%) respectively as compared to the positive control of 30mg/kg of 20mg/kg omeprazole that gave (4.00±0.63, 29.56%). The result showed a dose dependent activity for the plant extract, as concentration of the plant extract increases the percentage ulcer inhibition increases. Asystasia gangetica extract (AGE) exhibited a more gastro-protective effect against ethanol-induced stomach ulcers at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg than omeprazole (20 mg/kg) and solvent treated (control) rats. Major constituents detected by GC-MS were octadecenoic acid ester (RT: 26.55; 8.26%), an unsaturated fatty acid ester, squalene (RT: 31.82; 1.84%), a cholesterol precursor and beta-sitosterol (RT: 32.46: 3.78%). The IR bands of the alkaloid fraction were 1380.11cm-1 (C-H) band of methyl, 1652.09cm-1 (N-H band) of amine and 2929.97cm-1 (O-H stretch) of carboxylic acid. The presences of these compounds in the extract fraction suggest that the plant has rich medicinal value and hence, the preventive property of A. gangetica justified its ethno medical use as anti-ulcer by patients. 

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Chemical Society of Nigeria