The use of modified pine cone in natural rubber compounding


  • A. K. Akinlabi
  • A. O. Aminu
  • S. O. Oni
  • F. Akinwunmi
  • G. O. Oladipo
  • A. M. Mosaku
  • F. Y. Falope
  • N. Y. Ilesanmi
  • I. C. Nwankwo
  • A. A. Falomo
  • T. O. Aborode


Natural rubber latex from NIG 804 clones was processed into crumb rubber (TSR 10) and used for this investigation. Carbon black (CB), uncarbonized and carbonized forms of pine cone were used as fillers in various ratios during the compounding of the rubber blends. The Uncarbonized Pine Cone (UPC) and Carbonized Pine Cone (CPC) were used in the compounding by gradually replacing carbon black at various ratios of 100%, 50%, 25% and 0% of carbon black. Prior to compounding, analysis of the UPC and CPC viz-a-viz: particle size distribution, loss on ignition, iodine absorption, moisture contents, ash contents, pH and elemental compositions were first carried out. After compounding, the vulcanizates were subjected to rheological, physical and mechanical tests. On the basis of the investigated properties, it was observed that both carbonized and uncarbonized pine cones acted as plasticizer in the rubber matrix. Strength and rheological properties of mixes with CPC were found to be better than the UPC. Though, compatibility of CPC and UPC with the rubber blends were observed, but up to 10% blend of each with CB showed appreciable engineering values that can be recommended. Keywords:compounding; blends, natural rubber, pine cone, vulcanization.