http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/issue/feed Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-07-11T10:39:42+00:00 Prof AK Akinlabi editorinchief@chemsociety.org.ng Open Journal Systems <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-top: 0px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria is a bi-annual publication of original research reports in pure and applied chemistry. 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It is made clear herein that the data and information in the articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Consequently, the Editorial board and their respective staff and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such misleading data and/or information.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">©CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (CSN)</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> <strong style="box-sizing: border-box; font-weight: bolder;">Prof. A.K. Akinlabi</strong></p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> Editor-in-Chief</p> http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/506 CHEMICAL FORMS OF Zn, Mn, Fe and Pb IN SOIL SAMPLES FROM THE VICINITY OF SOME MAJOR DUMPSITES IN GOMBE METROPOLIS, GOMBE STATE NIGERIA 2020-07-07T16:30:50+00:00 A.O. Abdullahi latyph2k@yahoo.com A. Usman latyph2k@yahoo.com A.H. Zakari latyph2k@yahoo.com J.R. Tukur latyph2k@yahoo.com <p>This research work is aimed at determining the chemical speciation of metals Zn, Mn, Fe and Pb in soil samples from three major dumpsites within Gombe metropolis, Gombe state. The renowned five steps Tessier sequential extraction method was employed in the extraction of the heavy metals. The metals were extracted into five fractions namely: Exchangeable (F1), carbonate bound (F2), Fe-Mn oxide bound (F3), Bound to organic matter (F4) and the residual fraction (F5) in order of decreasing mobility. The elemental analysis of the fractions was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometric technique. The results showed Zn was predominantly bounded to the exchangeable fraction with 32.66±0.31 mg/kg (54.18%) and least in the Fe – Mn oxide fraction with 0.01±0.00 mg/kg (0.02%). The trend in its abundance is in the order F1&gt; F2&gt;F5&gt;F4&gt;F3. Mn was predominantly associated with the bound to carbonates fraction with the value of 103.3.±3.30 mg/kg (56.14%) and least in the exchangeable with the value of 1.30±1.85mg/kg (2.13%) its occurred in the order F2&gt;F3&gt;F4&gt;F5&gt;F1. The concentration of Fe was highest in the residual fraction with the value of 25.90±1.75mg/kg (45.45%)and least in the carbonate bound fraction wi th 5.10±0.40 mg/kg (2.13%) the order is F5&gt;F4&gt;F3&gt;F2&gt;F1. Pb was not detected in most of the fraction but highest in bond to carbonate and bond to organic matter fraction with the values of 6.64±4.12 mg/Kg (70.64 %) and 2.76±0.10 mg/Kg (29.36 %) respectively in two different samples. It was however established that Zn, Mn and Pb were mostly associated with the first three fractions thus, showed high bio-availabilty whereas Fe was found in the residual fraction and is expected to be low in mobility and less bioavailable.&nbsp;</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/510 EFFECT OF INORGANIC ALTERNATIVE SCOURING AGENTS ON STRUCTURE OF CELLULOSE/POLYESTER BLEND FABRIC 2020-07-11T10:29:14+00:00 A. U. Barambu aubnabiu@gmail.com D. E. A. Boryo aubnabiu@gmail.com H. M Adamu aubnabiu@gmail.com K. M Yahuza aubnabiu@gmail.com A. Abdulkadir aubnabiu@gmail.com <p>In this research, a structural modification for a cellulose/polyester blend has been carried out using NH4OH, (NH4)2C2O4 and liquid NH3 which are environmentally friendly alternative scouring agents with NaOH as control. The scouring process was carried out on the samples with these alternative agents. Investigation into structural modification of cellulose/polyester blend fabric using NH4OH, (NH4)2C2O4 and liquid NH3 and its structural characterization with X-ray diffraction was carried. The results showed the inferences variation in the crystallinity index of scoured samples from (3.21-65.30%), the crystallite size of scoured samples (1.9-15 nm) in the crystalline region and (7-20 nm) in the amorphous region, inter-planar spacing of the scoured samples (0.340-0.350 nm) of the crystalline region and (0.350-0.340 nm) of the amorphous region and number of crystalline planes of the scoured samples is (3-11) of the cellulose/polyester blend fabric samples via X-ray diffraction studies. Among these alternative agents (NH4)2C2O4 and NH4OH showed better interaction with both amorphous and crystalline regions of the cellulose/polyester blend fabric samples without loss in crystallinity when used as scouring agents, and the possibilities of being a superior alternative with significant effect on the structures of the cellulose/polyester blend, while the other samples showed possibilities of being highly competitive with the conventional agent.</p> 2020-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/491 CORROSION PROTECTION OF MILD STEEL AND ALUMINIUM IN 0.1M AND 1M HCL ACID SOLUTIONS USING PTEROCARPUS OSUN. 2020-07-07T09:39:02+00:00 G.J. Okore gloryokore150@yahoo.com E.U. Elenwoke gloryokore150@yahoo.com J.S. Okore gloryokore150@yahoo.com E.E. Oguzie gloryokore150@yahoo.com <p>The inhibition effect of Pterocarpus osun on the corrosion of mild steel and aluminium in acidic medium was studied using gravimetric techniques. Weight loss measurements were determined on metal coupons in 0.1M and 1M HCl acid within the immersion time of 24-h for 5 consecutive days. Inhibition efficiency was determined by comparing the corrosion rates of mild steel and aluminium in 0.1M and 1M HCl in the presence and absence of additives. The trend of inhibition efficiency was used to propose the mechanism of inhibition. It was found that the plant extract act as inhibitor for acid-induced corrosion of mild steel and aluminium in 0.1M and 1M HCl. Inhibition efficiency of 94.5% and 94.9% were obtained for P. osun for aluminium in 0.1M and 1M HCl and 98.9%and 96.9% for mild steel in 0.1M and 1M HCl respectively. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increase in inhibitor concentrations. The adsorption of the inhibitor obeyed Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm. Based on the findings, P. osun stem extract is highly recommended as an alternative to synthetic, toxic chemical inhibitors.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/494 Evaluation and Consequences of the pH and Caffeine Content of Energy Drinks Marketed in Delta State, Nigeria 2020-07-07T15:12:32+00:00 O. J. Akpoghelie comradeogaga@yahoo.co.uk U. A. Igbuku comradeogaga@yahoo.co.uk U. J. Esemedafe comradeogaga@yahoo.co.uk <p>Energy drink are acidic beverages with high sugar and caffeine content. They may also be referred to as “Sugar Sweetened Low pH Caffeinated Drink”. Though, the health benefits of energy drink are controversial, while they are believed to be energy boosters, enhance capacity to concentrate and also to improve physical and mental performance; it consumption may lead to degenerated health such as delayed child bearing/infertility, miscarriage, obesity or stomach ulcer as consequence of caffeine poisoning and the lowering of the body pH. This study is poise to investigate and review the acidity level alongside the caffeine content of energy drink samples, and also examine the relationship between pH, sugar metabolism and it consequences in man. </p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/497 Biosorption of Pb(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous phase by Ceaser weed (Urena Lobata) bark, a low cost biosorbent. 2020-07-07T15:34:44+00:00 O. K. Amadi amadikelvin77@gmail.com A. Okoyeagu amadikelvin77@gmail.com O. U. Akoh amadikelvin77@gmail.com <p>In this study, an effective biosorbent was developed from Urena Lobata for removing Pb2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ from its aqueous solution. Different experiments were conducted in a batch system to determine the effects of the system variable such as biosorbent dosage, initial metal concentration range of 10 to 50 mg/L, and temperature. The uptake capacity and distribution coefficients (Kd) were determined for the adsorption system as a function of sorbate concentration. The equilibrium adsorption data were analysed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, and Dubinin Radushkevich (DKR) isotherm models but Dubinin–Radushkevich best interprets the experimental data. The maximum adsorption capacity of Ni(II), Pb(II), and Cd(II) are 0.00 mg/g,333.33 mg/g and -52.63 mg/g respectively. Different thermodynamic parameters, like Gibbs free energy (∆G), enthalpy (∆H), and entropy (∆S) of the adsorption process have also been evaluated. The negative value of G indicates the feasibility of the process. The positive value of H: 21026.11, 6927.23, and 6815.82 J/mol for Ni(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions respectively confirms the endothermic nature of adsorption. Moreover, the positive value of S: 87.55, 59.65, and 6.90 J/mol for Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions respectively observed for the adsorption of metal ion molecules suggested the increased randomness at the solid-solution interface during the adsorption process. According to the equilibrium studies, the selectivity sequence is given as Pb2+ &gt; Ni2+ &gt; Cd2+. These results show that Urena Lobata holds great potential to remove cationic heavy metal species from industrial wastewater. </p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/500 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL PROPERTIES OF A CLAY MINERAL DEPOSIT IN GEHEKU, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA 2020-07-07T15:53:40+00:00 E.E.I. Irabor emmanuel.irabor@uniben.edu A. K. Okunkpolor emmanuel.irabor@uniben.edu <p>The physico-chemical and mineralogical properties of a clay mineral deposit in Geheku, Kogi State, Nigeria were assessed. The results of the study revealed that the deposit consisted of phyllosilicate minerals- Illite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, halloysite, almandine; other minerals present were quartz and ramsdellite. The clay minerals exhibited good swelling property, medium plasticity, good thermal shock resistance and apparent porosity; it had refractoriness below 1200 <strong>o</strong>C. The properties of the clay reflected the combined properties of the constituent clay and non-clay minerals which recommends it for a variety of applications which requires the blend of property though the working temperature must be below 1200 oC. The clay mineral deposit colours were influenced by the minerals almadine and ramsdellite.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/504 EVALUATION OF THE AVAILABLE PLANT NUTRIENTS AT DIFFERENT pH LEVELS OF AHOKOR CLAY DEPOSIT LOCATED IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA. 2020-07-07T16:18:07+00:00 E. E. I. Irabor uwaila.omoruyi@uniben.edu C. A. Unuigbe uwaila.omoruyi@uniben.edu U. Omoruyi uwaila.omoruyi@uniben.edu K. O. EhimikhuaI uwaila.omoruyi@uniben.edu F. J. Sama uwaila.omoruyi@uniben.edu <p>The nutrient level of Ahokor clay deposit in Kogi State, Nigeria was evaluated with the view of using it as a soil ammendments in soils deficient in plant mineral nutrients. Exchangeable bases (EB), cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable acidity (EA) and percent base saturation were determined at five different pH levels for the top (LT) and bottom layers (LB) of the clay. These parameters were determined at pH4, pH5, pH7, pH8 and pH9 respectively. The exchangeable bases varied with change in pH with optimum values of K+ (1.120 0.300 cmolKg-1) and Na+ (0.701 0.010 cmolKg-1) for LT obtained at pH7 and pH4 respectively, while those of Ca2+ (0.920 0.025 cmolKg-1) and Mg2+ (0.298 0.027 cmolKg-1) were recorded at pH9. Optimum values for the exchangeable bases for the bottom clay (LB) were recorded at pH9 with values of 0.536 0.020 cmolKg-1, 3.522 0.023 cmolKg-1, 1.959 0.020 cmolKg-1 and 0.358 0.036 cmolKg-1 recorded for Na+ , K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ respectively. The optimum condition for application as soil ammendment was obtained at pH9 as the percent base saturation which indicates that the crystal lattice is occupied with more of the desired base cations was highest at this pH for both layers.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/507 ANTIMALARIAL, FERRIC REDUCING ANTIOXIDANT POWER AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF Caesalpinia pulcherrima LEAF EXTRACT 2020-07-07T16:39:33+00:00 O. K. Ogbeide kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu O. K. Okhomina kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu I. G. Omoregie kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu C. A. Unuigbe kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu A. Ighodaro kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu I. U. Akhigbe kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu M. Iheanacho kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu P. C. Akubuiro kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu A. Solomon kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu E. E. I. Irabor kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu B. J. Owolabi kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu A. Falodun kennedy.ogbeide@uniben.edu <p>The increasing rise of resistance of malaria parasites to established antimalarial drugs have necessitated the continued search for new drug entities especially those with fresh modes of action. Caesalpinia pulcherrima is a plant with many pharmacological and medicinal properties. The leaf extract and fractions were studied for their antimalarial, ferric reducing antioxidant power and elemental composition.Various fractions of the leaf extracts were obtained using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC). The in vivo antimalarial activity was evaluated against plasmodium berghei parasites. The required dose was given according to the weight of the animal two hours after inoculation of parasites on D1, then once daily for three more days (D2-D4). The antioxidant activity was carried out using UV-Visible spectrometer at 593 nm. The elemental analysis was done using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. There was a dose dependent increase in percentage chemo-suppression of the parasites by the different groups with maximum effect at 800 mg/kg (61.57-34.86 % from day five (5)to day eight (8) respectively). The highest FRAP activity was observed in 100% ethyl acetate with 314.90 ± 3.94 mmol, while the lowest antioxidant power was observed in 50% ethyl acetate:50% n-hexane fraction with 48.50 ± 1.10. 90%methanol:10% distilled water fraction did not indicate any FRAP activity. The results obtained revealed that the phytochemicals with very potent antioxidant power are more present in the ethyl acetate fraction. Elemental compositions (ppm) in the powdered leaf of C. pulcherrima were, sodium (Na); 20.27 ± 0.12, iron (Fe); 13.50 ± 0.08, calcium (Ca); 9.0 ± 0.14, and copper (Cu); 0.30 ± 0.08. Lead (Pb) was not detected. This study has shown that Lead concentration was below detectable limit, while the concentrations of Fe and Cu were within established permissible limits. Appreciable amount of Na and Ca were also indicated. C. pulcherrima leaf extract and fractions contain biologically active principles that are relevant antimalarial and antioxidant agents with acceptable mineral compositions. </p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/511 Chemical Compositions of Fermented and Unfermented Seeds of Cissus populnea Obtained from Niger state, Nigeria 2020-07-11T10:39:42+00:00 J. T. Mathew johntsadom@gmail.com A. A. Otori johntsadom@gmail.com M. Musah johntsadom@gmail.com E. Y. Shaba johntsadom@gmail.com A. N. Tsado johntsadom@gmail.com E. Tanko johntsadom@gmail.com <p>The chemical compositions of fermented (24 and 48 h) and unfermented seeds of Cissus populnea obtained from Niger State, Nigeria were determined using standard analytical methods. The % total essential amino acids ranged from 37.62±0.08 (unfermented) to 40.24±0.04 g/100g protein (fermented for 24 h), % total conditionally essential amino acids ranged from 23.36±0.10 (unfermented) to 25.65±0.05 (fermented for 24 h), while % total non-essential amino acids ranged from 34.10±0.07 (fermented for 24 h)to 39.03±0.12 (unfermented) g/100g protein. The food functional properties like the foaming capacities ranging from 1.82±0.12 (unfermented) to 6.05±0.10 % (fermented for 48 h), oil absorption ranged from 0.65±0.01 (unfermented) to 0.70±0.03 mg/g (fermented for 48 h) and water absorption ranged from 1.89±0.53 (fermented for 24 h) to 2.03±0.11 mg/g (unfermented), bulk densities ranged from 0.39±0.33 (fermented for 48 h) to 0.61±0.11 g/cm3 (unfermented), while swelling capacities ranged from 1.92±0.28 (fermented for 48 h) to 3.50±0.36 % (unfermented) and emulsification capacities ranged from 42.03±0.36 (unfermented) to 54.21±0.52 % (fermented for 48 h). The physicochemical parameters determined were also observed to decrease as the fermentation days increased. Food processing technologies for exploiting the utilisation of C. populnea flours both fermented and unfermented should be promoted. </p> 2020-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/488 META-ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY IN NIGERIA 2020-07-07T08:59:49+00:00 N.M Eya ngozi.eya@unn.edu.ng D.N. Ezeh ngozi.eya@unn.edu.ng <p>Evident reports on the inconsistencies of the findings of the studies on the influence of gender on student’s academic achievement in chemistry in Nigeria necessitated this study. The study is aimed at integrating the results of previous empirical studies on the influence of gender on students’ academic achievement in chemistry in order to come up with a conclusive idea. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study in which meta-analytic research design was used. The population of the study consists of all previous research reports on gender and achievement in chemistry. Sixty-two studies produced in Nigeria between 1990 – 2017 drawn using purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Percentages and statistical transformations were used to analyze the data for the result while the Winer combined test was used in testing the hypothesis. From the data analysis, it was found that gender generally has small effect on the students’ achievement in chemistry. It was also found that the percentage variance in the students’ academic achievement attributed to gender is 3.8% which is also small. Based on these findings some recommendations were made.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/492 Isolation, Characterization and Antimicrobial Screening of Betulinic Acid from the Stem Extract of Fadogia erythrophloea 2020-07-07T14:57:19+00:00 J. M. Joshua oyewaleao@yahoo.co.uk A. O. Oyewale oyewaleao@yahoo.co.uk H. Ibrahim oyewaleao@yahoo.co.uk <p>The stem bark of Fadogia erythrophloea (Rubiaceae) was extracted exhaustively using methanol by cold maceration. The crude extract was then sequentially partitioned into n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions. Purification of the chloroform fraction by column and preparative thin layer chromatography lead to the isolation of the pure compound. Structural elucidation using FTIR, 1H and C NMR spectroscopic techniques confirmed that the isolated compound was betulinic acid (a lupane-type triterpene). The antimicrobial property of the compound against gram-positive and gram-negative microbes was evaluated using well diffusion method with commercial antibiotics; ciprofloxacin and fluconazole, as controls. The antimicrobial screening revealed sensitivity of S. aureus, S. faecalis, B. cereus, E. coli, K. pneumonia, S. typhi, S. dysenteriae, C. albicans, C. Krusei; with resistance of S. pyogenes, B. subtilis, C. ulceran, P. aeruginosa to the isolated compound. The zone of inhibition ranges from 25 – 30 mm with the highest against Escherichia coli and the lowest against Klebsiella pneumonia on which both control drugs were not sensitive. The MIC and MBC / MFC values ranges from 6.25 – 25 µg/ml and 25 – 50 µg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti-microbial screening of the isolated compound (betulinic acid) supports the ethno medicinal claim on the uses of Fadogia erythrophloea for the treatment of malaria, childhood fever, dysentery diarrhea, colic and constipation.&nbsp;</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/495 Petiveria alliacea root extract as Green Inhibitor for Acid Corrosion of Aluminium 2020-07-07T15:18:12+00:00 O.O. Adeyemi adeyemi.olufemi@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng A.O. Salisu adeyemi.olufemi@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng <p>Corrosion inhibition of aluminium in 0.5M 𝐻 􀀀􀀁􀀂 by methanol root extracts of Petiveria alliacea was investigated by weight loss and linear polarization techniques. The weight loss is concentration dependent and increases with increasing concentration of Petiveria alliacea root extracts (PARE). The inhibitor (PARE) exhibited highest inhibition efficiency of 75.28% at the highest inhibitor concentration of 8g investigated. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing PARE concentration. PARE showed molecular adsorption of phytochemicals present as active ingredients through the hetero atoms in their molecules. Polarization studies showed that the extracts act as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibitor obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/498 Fertility Status of Selected Agricultural Soils Along Major Roads in Nasarawa Eggon and Doma Areas of Nasarawa State, North Central, Nigeria 2020-07-07T15:41:12+00:00 J. C. Onwuka emperor20062003@yahoo.com J. M. Nwaedozie emperor20062003@yahoo.com E. H. Kwon – Dung emperor20062003@yahoo.com P. T. Terna emperor20062003@yahoo.com <p>Soil nutrient status determines its crop productivity and provide basis for appropriate soil management. The soil samples which spread across the agricultural farms along major roads in Nasarawa Eggon and Doma areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria; were analyzed for both physical and chemical properties. Most of the studied Nasarawa Eggon and Doma soils were extremely acidic. Textural class showed high sand content (&gt;80) of the investigated soils, indicating possible high rate of water infiltration in these soils which will lead to their low water holding capacity. The organic carbon (OC) contents in both locations, were rated high as it varied from 1.50 to 1.85 %, whereas total nitrogen (TN) levels ranged from 0.07 to 0.21 % in the studied soils. The levels of available P, Ca, K and Mg were inadequate for satisfactory plant growth, considering their respective critical level established for Nigerian soils. Mineral analysis showed the presence of essential elements such as S, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mo and Zn. Beneficial/functional elements such as Ti, V, Rb and Sr, were found in significant quantities in the investigated soils of both studied areas. Thus, Potential K and Ca deficiency could be greatly compensated by Rb and Sr uptake. The quantities of non – beneficial elements such as Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba and Sc were significant in soils from Nasarawa Eggon but were insignificant in Doma soils. Thus, this study revealed that nutrient content of the soil differs from the nutrient availability for plant uptake and the fertility of investigated soils in both locations depended on the soil pH and textural class. Also, the conditions of the soils at both studied locations, are unfavourable for plant uptake of certain important nutrients and could lead to low crop yields if there is no effective nutrient and soil management.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/501 PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BANANA FRUITS (Musa spp) RIPENED WITH VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF CALCIUM CARBIDE. 2020-07-07T16:00:34+00:00 A. M. Nuhu amnuhu2006@yahoo.com A. Rabi amnuhu2006@yahoo.com H. R. Tukur amnuhu2006@yahoo.com <p>Fruit ripening is a natural process in which fruits go through various physical and chemical changes and gradually become sweet, coloured, soft and palatable. However, in recent years, the use of chemical agents as artificial fruit ripening agents has become prevalent mostly due to the commercial purposes without recourse to their health effects. Calcium carbide is one of such chemicals that is used in ripening fruits because of its cheapness and availability but at the same time it poses lots of potential health problems to health. The aim therefore was to determine the effect of the compound on the nutritional quality and hence otherwise any health effects of consuming such fruits. In this study, Banana fruits of Musa spp were purchased from vendors at station market Kaduna and were subjected to artificial ripening using various concentrations of calcium carbide(0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 M. and adopting similar techniques used by the vendors The result of the proximate analysis revealed that moisture content ranged between(71.52% -74.54%), ash content (0.815% -1.185%), fats content (0.47% - 3.21%), crude protein content (3.33%-2.63%) as well as carbohydrates content (23.67% - 18.44%). The effect of the calcium carbide is the exposure of the fruit to higher moisture content which leads to spoilage and degradation on the nutritional quality of the Banana fruits. However, at lower concentration of the calcium carbide same period of ripening was achieved without much effects on the fruits. The results of the elemental analysis revealed the concentration of Arsenic as (0.010mg/kg-0.071mg/kg) and Phosphorous as (194.50mg/kg- 231.00mg/kg).The values for Arsenic were found to be within the tolerable limit of FAO standard but for Phosphorous the values were higher than the standard and this could be from the fertilisers used for cultivation. The findings indicates that ripening of Banana fruits ( Musa spp) with higher concentration of Calcium carbide pose a great potential health dangers to consumers especially to the nervous system and must therefore be legislated.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/505 Determination of Stability Constants and Thermodynamic parameters of Cefotaxime –Fe(III) Complex at Different Temperatures 2020-07-07T16:23:53+00:00 O. V. Ikpeazu ifeanyiotuokere@gmail.com I. E. Otuokere ifeanyiotuokere@gmail.com K. K. Igwe ifeanyiotuokere@gmail.com <p><em>Cefotaxime,</em> <em>a β-lactam antibiotic, has a structure which enables it to act as a chelating agent. The formation of Fe(III) complex with cefotaxime has been studied colorimetrically at an absorption maximum of 480 nm at different temperatures. The data showed that Fe(III) and cefotaxime combine in the molar ratio of 1:1 &nbsp;at pH 7.4 with ionic strength maintained using 0.1M KNO</em><em>3</em><em>. The stability constants </em><em>of the complex were calculated to be 1.56 - 1.90 x 10</em><em>4 </em><em>by continuous variation method and 1.34 - 1.71 x </em><em>10</em><em>4 </em><em>by mole ratio method at 25 and 40 </em><em>o</em><em>C respectively. ∆H</em><em>Ɵ</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>values</em> <em>for the complex were calculated to be </em><em>-1.02 x 10</em><em>4 </em><em>and -1.05 x 10</em><em>4</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>J by continuous variation method and mole ratio method respectively. ∆G</em><em>Ɵ</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>of</em> <em>the complex were calculated to be -2.44 – (-2.51) x 10</em><em>4 </em><em>J by continuous variation method and -2.41- (- 2.48) &nbsp;x 10</em><em>4 </em><em>J by mole ratio method at 25 and 40 </em><em>o</em><em>C.</em><em> &nbsp;∆S</em><em>Ɵ</em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>of the complex were calculated to be 2.44 - 2.51 x 10</em><em>4 </em><em>J/K</em> <em>by</em> <em>continuous</em> <em>variation</em> <em>method</em> <em>and</em> <em>-2.41</em> <em>-2.48)</em> <em>x 10</em><em>4 </em><em>J/K by mole ratio method at 25 and 40 </em><em>o</em><em>C respectively. Cefotaxime is a good chelating agent and can be an efficient antidote in the therapy of copper overload or poisoning.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/509 DEVELOPMENT OF INDICATOR FOR ON-SITE DETECTION OF BROMATE IN SOME BREAD SAMPLES IN ABEOKUTA METROPOLIS 2020-07-07T16:49:42+00:00 M.O. Ogunyemi akinremica@funaab.edu.ng C.A. Akinremi akinremica@funaab.edu.ng T.F. Akinhanmi akinremica@funaab.edu.ng S. Adewuyi akinremica@funaab.edu.ng <p>A new highly selective indicator, Chitosan-Silver Carmoisine (CTS-AgCAM) was developed for the detection of potassium bromate in bread. The detection was based on the oxidation of Carmoisine (CAM) by potassium bromate (KBrO3), catalysed by Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs). The CTS-AgNPs was prepared by the reaction of silver nitrate with sodium hydroxide and stabilised in chitosan (CTS) and further addition of CAM. Batch experiments were carried out on various concentration of KBrO3 to obtain optimal conditions for the use of the indicator. This was monitored with a UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Fifty bread samples were then collected randomly from five different bakeries within Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria and qualitative analysis was carried out on the bread samples using the prepared indicator. The UV-Vis spectrum of the CTS- AgNPs revealed surface plasmon absorption maxima at 418-420 nm while the indicator showed maximum absorption at 516 nm. From the qualitative analysis, it was observed that on addition of 2 drops of CTS-AgCAM to a bread sample solution containing KBrO3, a pink colour of the indicator disappeared. It was also observed from the result of quantitative analysis that the fifty bread samples analyzed all containedKBrO3with concentration ranging between 3.23 ± 0.08 and 6.29 ± 0.91 µg/g. The indicator worked best between 1 and 5 µg/g and had a detection limit of 1 µg/g. The result showed that this indicator can be used easily for efficient on-site detection of bromate in bread.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/489 A REVIEW OF VARIOUS METHODS OF SYNTHESIZING NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS 2020-07-07T09:22:42+00:00 O.O. Akinlotan akinlotankay@gmail.com U.V. Ezenobi akinlotankay@gmail.com <p>There is an increasing interest and need to develop a deeper understanding of the nature, fate and behavior of nanoparticles in the environment. This is driven by the increased use of engineered nanoparticles and the increased pressure to commercialize this growing technology. Nanoparticles are different from bulk particles in terms of their physical, chemicals and biological properties. Nanoparticles in their different size acts differently. Nanotechnology in recent years has had numerous applications in different fields such as industry, biotechnology, energy and environment. This paper presents a review of recent journals on the different methods of synthesizing nanoparticles and their various applications. Metallic nanoparticles of gold, silver, manganese, zinc oxide and cadmium sulfide were synthesized using different methods which ranges from sol gel, precipitation, hydrothermal, chemical reduction to green synthesis. It was concluded that these synthesized nanoparticles have immense applications in the medical, environmental, agricultural and industrial sector.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/493 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS LEVELS IN SOIL AND VEGETABLES IN THE VICINITY OF UNLINED WASTE DUMPSITE IN NNEWI, ANAMBRA STATE NIGERIA 2020-07-07T15:05:02+00:00 C.C. Aralu edoziearalu@gmail.com P.A.C. Okoye edoziearalu@gmail.com <p>Unlined waste dumpsites are known to generate pollutants in the environment where they are located. This study investigates the pollutant load of unlined dumpsite by assessing the heavy metals levels of soil and vegetables in and around the waste dumpsite. 16 samples (study samples and control) for each soil and vegetable samples (Telfairia occidentalis, Talinum triangulare and Amaranthus hydridus) were collected respectively during wet season. The levels of 10 heavy metals were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method. The highest and lowest heavy metals concentrations in the study sample site for vegetables ranged from 11.5 mg/kg – 0.01 mg/kg, while 7.79 mg/kg - 0.00 mg/kg was analysed for control site. The soil heavy metals values ranged from 13.1 mg/kg – 0.28 mg/kg for study samples, while 7.45 mg/kg – 0.02 mg/kg for control site. The study samples heavy metal results for vegetables and soil were higher than the control samples, which was attributed to high mobility of metal ions as a result of its closeness to the dumpsite through leaching. The total transfer factors ranged from 3.89 – 3.01 for study samples and 3.46 – 2.75 for control samples. The study samples were higher than the control site due to high levels of soil contaminations. The vegetables samples showed high levels of heavy metals, which were above WHO/FAO limits. The risk index range of 16.015 – 14.551 for study samples, and 6.821 – 5.761 for control samples from the extrapolated vegetable results, revealed that the vegetables collected from both sites were above the critical value of 1. The vegetables are unfit for human consumption and can cause non-cancer health risks to the populace who consume them. A proper refuse disposal system in and around the residential areas should be adopted. Routine monitoring of heavy metals in such plants to prevent excessive accumulation of the metals in the food chain is also advocated.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/496 Biocontrol of Food Spoilage Microorganisms using Leaf extracts from Magnifera indica (Mango) and Psidium guajava (Guava). 2020-07-07T15:26:57+00:00 F.O. Oseghale oseghalefaithfulness@yahoo.com K.A. Fasina oseghalefaithfulness@yahoo.com A. Ohifueme oseghalefaithfulness@yahoo.com J. Omoruyi oseghalefaithfulness@yahoo.com <p>The shelf life of processed food is greatly reduced by spoilage microorganisms, which has resulted in great losses to food processors, wholesalers, retailers and even consumers. This study was aimed at controlling food spoilage microorganisms using leaf extracts from mango and guava. Fried meat (beef, chicken, grass-cutter, and goat meat), fried fish and fresh bread were purchased from Benin City, and left to spoil, after which spoilage organisms were isolated, identified and characterized using standard microbiological techniques. Mango and guava leaf extracts (ethanolic and aqueous), with Potassium sorbate and sodium nitrite was used. Significant highest (&lt;0.05) (15.67±0.88 mg/ml) antibacterial activity of Mango leaf extract was recorded against Escherichia coli, and significant highest (&lt;0.05) antifungal activity (19.67±0.33) was recorded against Penicillium oxalicum. Ethanolic leaf extracts of mango had better MICs (6.25 mg/ml) against E. coli tested than guava (25 mg/ml). In addition, ethanolic leaf extracts from Mango did not have any effect on Bacillus polymyxa. This study suggests that extracts from Mango and Guava leaves can be explored for controlling spoilage organisms; however, ethanolic extracts are more potent than aqueous extracts. </p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/499 INVESTIGATING FUNCTIONAL FOOD COMPONENTS AND EFFECT OF BOILING ON SOME SPECIES OF SESAME (SESAMUM INDICUM) SEEDS 2020-07-07T15:46:41+00:00 N. E. Okoronkwo ne.okoronkwo@abiastateuniversity.edu.ng M. O. Iwuagwu ne.okoronkwo@abiastateuniversity.edu.ng J. C. Igwe ne.okoronkwo@abiastateuniversity.edu.ng <p>The functional components - phytochemicals, vitamin, proximate, mineral and fatty acid compositions of three different species of sesame seeds: S. orientale, S. radiatum and S. V. Ex. Sudan were evaluated to establish use as functional food. Also the impact of boiling in water as a method of food processing was investigated on the alkaloid and flavonoid as well as vitamin compositions at varying times. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, saponin, tannin and phenol of which S. radiatum recorded the highest percentage of flavanoid (25.333±1.528%) and least percentage alkaloid (35.333±0.577%). The highest vitamin C concentration was observed in S. V. Ex. Sudan (0.0062±0.0002) and vitamin E was highest in S. radiatum (0.1781±0.0006) which also had the highest lipid content of 58.9 + 0.75% indicating highest oil content compared to the other two species. Sesamum V. Ex. Sudan had highest crude fibre of 8.5 + 0.92%. Sesamum radiatum contained highest calcium, magnesium, zinc copper and iron while S. orientale had highest sodium and cobalt. The oil extracted with ethanol contains more different types of fatty acids than the manually extracted oil. There were more different unsaturated fatty acids than saturated ones in the seeds. The Saturated fatty acids (SFA) identified in the oil samples were caproic acid (C6:0) found only in the oil extracted with ethanol but not in the manually extracted one; palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20.0), behenic acid (C22.0), and lignoceric acid (C24.0). Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) identified in the samples were myristoleic acid (C14:1) which was found only in the oil extracted with ethanol; palmitoleic acid (C16:1) oleic [C18.1(9)], vaccenic acid [C18.1(11)], eicosenoic acid (C20.1) and erusic acid (C22:1). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) identified in the oil samples were linoleic (C18:2),, alpha linolenic acid (C18:3),, eicosadienoic acid (C20.2), arachidonic (C20.4), dihomo-Y-linolenic (C20.3) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6) acids. The oil samples were rich especially in oleic [C18.1(9)] and vaccenic acid [C18.1(11)]. More so, considerable amount of alkaloid, flavanoid and vitamins contents were recorded after a maximum boiling time of thirty minutes for the cooked samples. The presence of these components predisposes these sesame seeds as valuable functional food.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/503 Phytochemical Contents, Characterization and Elemental Analysis of Pawpaw Leave Extract (Carica papaya) 2020-07-07T16:12:12+00:00 S. O JAJI jaji101us@gmail.com O. A DAMAZIO jaji101us@gmail.com T. S AIYELERO jaji101us@gmail.com F. S OLUWOLE jaji101us@gmail.com G. A OLAGBAYE jaji101us@gmail.com O.A AJETU NMOBI jaji101us@gmail.com A. A EJIRE jaji101us@gmail.com <p>Traditionally, carica papaya (pawpaw) leaves have been used to cure so many diseases which include infertility. The carica papaya leaves were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard methods, elemental analysis was conducted using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophometry), FTIR was used to elucidate the compounds detected and GC-MS was used for the qualitative and quantitative detection of the bioactive compounds. The results showed that flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins and terpenoids were detected. AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) analysis in mg/kg showed the presence of zinc (26.19mg/kg), chromium (5.22mg/kg), iron (29.17 mg/kg) and manganese (7.92mg/kg) respectively. The functional groups identified in ῡ (cm-1) are 3354 (O-H stretch); 2924, 2853 (C-H stretch); 1736 (C=O stretch); 1619 (C=C stretch), while the result obtained from GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves revealed Δ -Tocopherol (32.835), γ - Tocopherol (33.671), Vitamin E (34.374), Neryl nitrile (31.817), Curan-17-oic acid, 2, 16-didehydro- 20-hydroxy-19-oxo (30.764). It can be concluded that the Carica papaya leaves extracted with methanol contains some elements such as zinc, iron and manganese and compound such as vitamin E along with the phytochemical. which are require for the treatment of infertility.</p> 2020-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria