http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/issue/feed Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-09-06T14:43:52+00:00 Prof AK Akinlabi editorinchief@chemsociety.org.ng Open Journal Systems <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-top: 0px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria is a bi-annual publication of original research reports in pure and applied chemistry. 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It is made clear herein that the data and information in the articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Consequently, the Editorial board and their respective staff and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such misleading data and/or information.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">©CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (CSN)</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> <strong style="box-sizing: border-box; font-weight: bolder;">Prof. A.K. Akinlabi</strong></p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> Editor-in-Chief</p> http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/515 Preliminary investigation of transesterified waste cooking oil (WCO) as a biodiesel 2020-08-30T16:48:25+00:00 R. C. Nnamani oviabayeh@gmail.com P. N. Okwu oviabayeh@gmail.com B. John oviabayeh@gmail.com O. J. Abayeh oviabayeh@gmail.com <p>This research focuses on the production of cheap biodiesel from waste cooking oil [WCO], using the transesterification method. A disadvantage of biodiesel produced from virgin oils is that it is still more expensive than D2 petroleum diesel [diesel sold in filling stations]. The trust therefore of this study is the production of relatively cheap biodiesel, from a cheap feedstock. The conversion of the WCO involved the use of excess methanol and potassium hydroxide (as a homogenous catalyst), in a separatory funnel with vigorous agitation for 30 mins at a temperature of (40 0C). The mixture was thereafter allowed to stand overnight, and two layers were observed. The upper biodiesel [waste cooking oil methyl ester-WCOMe] layer was purified by washing with water [10ml x 5] and dried (anhydrous sodium sulphate). Improvised procedures were used to determine the following fuel quality parameters (viscosity, flash point, cloud point and pour point) and afforded 29.8 sec, 240 0C, 1.0 0C and 0.8 0C respectively. The reaction was conducted within 30 mins at 40 0C. Palm kernel oil methyl ester [PKOMe] was produced from palm kernel oil [PKO] using the same process for WCOMe and the cost of production based on feedstock price only compared. Use of WCO feedstock drastically reduced the production cost of WCOMe when compared to palm kernel oil methyl ester [PKOMe]. Production cost of WCOMe was free compared to N520.83 L-1 for PKOMe. The presence of fatty acid methyl esters in WCOMe and PKOMe was confirmed by GC. Waste cooking oil as feedstock for biodiesel should therefore be encouraged as it affords a relatively cheap fuel and remediates the disposal of WCO as an environmental hazard.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/518 Isolation and Characterization of Oleanolic Acid Benzoate from the Ethylacetate Leaves Extracts of Vernonia ambigua (Kotschy Ex. Peyr) 2020-08-30T17:12:35+00:00 U. Z. Gwandu danumar77@yahoo.com S. M. Dangoggo danumar77@yahoo.com U. Z. Faruk danumar77@yahoo.com E. M. Halilu danumar77@yahoo.com A. J. Yusuf danumar77@yahoo.com M. M. Mailafiya danumar77@yahoo.com <p>Vernonia ambigua, an annual herb which belongs to the family Asteraceae/Compositae has been used in ethnomedicine to treat different ailments such as fungal infection, diarrhea and intestinal worm among others. The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize compound(s) from the leaves of V. ambigua. Powdered leaf of the plant were gradiently extracted with n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol using Soxhlet extractor. The ethyl acetate extract was gradiently eluted in a silica gel column and further purified using preparative thin-layer chromatography which led to the isolation of colourless solid substance identified as Oleanolic acid benzoate via chemical tests, 1D-NMR analysis and by comparison with reference spectral data. After thorough exploration of the leaf extract of V. ambigua, using available techniques, it can be concluded that the leaf part of the plant contains a chemical compound suggested to be oleanolic acid benzoate.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/521 Effect of pH, Anions and Acids on the Extraction of Zinc (II) from Aqueous media using Acetylacetone Solutions of Sulphamethoxazole 2020-08-30T18:10:35+00:00 F. C. Nwadire nwadire.felix@mouau.edu.ng S. A. Odoemelam nwadire.felix@mouau.edu.ng C. O. L. Ubani nwadire.felix@mouau.edu.ng S. C. Ubah nwadire.felix@mouau.edu.ng <p>The challenge of heavy metal contaminations have been remediated to a certain level by the application of several methods of their extractions from aqueous media. Solvent extraction of zinc (II) ions from buffered aqueous solutions into acetylacetone solution of sulphamethoxazole as a function of pH and concentration of anionic substances and certain mineral acids were investigated in this work. The aqueous medium was prepared by dissolving 1.0995g of ZnSO4.7H2O in 250 ml volumetric flask to form 1000mg/L solution. 50mg/L working concentration was prepared from the 1000mg/L by dilution method. The organic phase is 0.5 M Sulfamethoxazole solution prepared by dissolving 12.664g of the salt in 100 ml acetylacetone. 2 ml each of aqueous and organic phases were taken with micro pipette and transferred into a set of 20 ml extraction bottle and the mixture was agitated mechanically for about 30 minutes. The mixture was allowed to settle and separate into two layers. 1 ml of the aqueous phase was taken, diluted and analysed for Zn (II) ions using atomic absorption spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 213.9. The results obtained on studying the effect of pH showed that Zn (II) ion was quantitatively extracted between pH of 7.0 to pH 8.0. The highest percentage extraction 85.37% was observed at pH 8.0 in acetylacetone solution of sulphamethoxazole. Increase in pH above 8.0 resulted in a steady decrease in the extraction of Zn (II). Studies on the effect of anions showed significant extractions which changes as the anions concentrations increased. All studies on mineral acids also showed significant extractions and increase in the concentrations of the acids affected the percentage extraction. Generally Zinc (II) ions can be extracted quantitatively in mild acids and anions concentrations when buffered from slightly acidic pH ranges of 6.0 to slightly alkaline pH values of 8.5.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/524 INVESTIGATION OF THE INHIBITIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF EUCALYPTUS LEAVES ON MILD STEEL IN ACIDIC MEDIA 2020-08-30T18:34:28+00:00 Ali Bilar dralexbilar@gmail.com Benedict Christopher dralexbilar@gmail.com <p>The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 0.5M H2SO4 and 1M HCl by leave extract of eucalyptus was studied using gravimetric (weight loss) method at various temperature. The results obtained showed that the efficiency of inhibition increases with increase in the extract concentrations and decreases with rise in temperature. The adsorption of plant extract on the mild steels was found to obey Longmuir adsorption isotherm. This could be due to physical adsorption of cation species on the metal surface.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/527 GREEN SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON (III) COMPLEX OF UREA FROM HUMAN URINE AND IRON RUST 2020-08-30T18:53:55+00:00 V.O. Uduah victoruduah@yahoo.com J.J. Gongden victoruduah@yahoo.com M.L. Kagoro victoruduah@yahoo.com K.K. Gurumyen victoruduah@yahoo.com Y.N. Lohdip victoruduah@yahoo.com J.T. Sase victoruduah@yahoo.com <p>This work presents a dry synthesis of Iron (III) complex with urea isolated from human urine and Fe (III) obtained from iron rust particles. Iron (III), PI (Purified iron rust), was isolated from iron rust in 10% hydrochloric acid, HCl and distilled water respectively. The complex was synthesized via dry-synthesis method using the melted urea as reaction medium. The isolated Fe (III) was characterized by elemental analysis which was done using XRF Cu-Zn method. The complex was prepared in a 1:4 metal to ligand (M-L) ratio. The stoichiometry of reaction indicate a 1:3 ratio of M-L (Fe-U). The complex was characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, XRF and XRD spectroscopic techniques. The Fe (III) isolate and Fe-U complex shows percentage yields of 35.7% and ~92% respectively. The elemental and oxide composition of Fe and Fe2O3 (i.e., PI) were 40.387% and 57.753% respectively. The results obtained from the characterization of the iron-urea complex, IUC, indicate FT-IR result as symmetric and asymmetric frequencies with peaks of a combination band of Vs (NH) and Vas (NH), C=O and V (C-N) all stretched, XRD showed the crystal to be amorphous. The elemental and oxide composition of the Fe and Fe2O3 in IUC were 40.007 and 44.201 respectively. The results obtained revealed that useful complexes can be synthesized easily from waste materials, such as urine and iron rust particles, which complement Green chemistry.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/530 Evaluation of The Swelling Ability And Water Binding Capacity Of Some Local Plant Consumed In Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2020-08-30T19:09:17+00:00 N.M. Gaila nmgaila@gmail.com M. Buba nmgaila@gmail.com A. Ahmed nmgaila@gmail.com <p>The functional properties are the intrinsic physicochemical characteristics which affect the behavior of ingredient in food systems during processing, manufacturing, storage and preparation etc. Such functional properties include water and oil binding, emulsification capacities, swelling ability and viscosity. This work is aimed at evaluating the swelling Ability and water binding capacities of Spinous Amarantus (alayahon daji) (AA) Senna accedentalis (tasba) (TB), Phyllantus niruri (mace mai goyo) (MC), Hibiscus sabdrariffa (yakuwan daji) (YD) and Leptadenia hastate (yadiya) (YE) which are commonly consumed in our localities with little or no knowledge about their nutritional properties. AOAC method of analysis as outlined by Adabowale was adopted for the analysis with little modifications. All the samples analyzed showed significant water swelling ability with AA and YD showing the highest values of 1.5±0.06 v/g while TB shows the lowest value of 0.5±0.05 v/g. There was a significant difference (p &lt;0.05) in the WBC values (%) obtained for the different plants analyzed. The results revealed that crude AA has the highest value of 12.48±0.82 and YD has the lowest value of 5.50±0.09. Insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) was also extracted from the samples and evaluated for water binding capacity. The Insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) showed WBC values. The highest values 1.54±0.08g/g and lowest 0.94±0.00g/g were obtained MC and YE respectively. All the crude samples showed significant water binding capacity (WBC) than their respective insoluble dietary fiber (IDF). This is as a result of the structural and chemical composition of the crude samples. However, the research has revealed that both the crude and the IDF samples analyzed has therapeutic potentials.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/533 ONE-POT-TWO-STEP SYNTHESIS OF BIOLUBRICANT BASE STOCK FROM RUBBER SEED OIL 2020-08-30T19:32:47+00:00 G.O . Madojemu madojemugregory@gmail.com E.A. Elimian madojemugregory@gmail.com M.C. Ejimadu madojemugregory@gmail.com C.O. Okieimen madojemugregory@gmail.com F.E. Okieimen madojemugregory@gmail.com <p>Biolubricant base stock was synthesized in this work from rubber seed oil in a one-pot-two-step process of epoxidation and hydroxylation. Rubber seed oil was extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus. The in situ epoxidation of the rubber seed oil with peracid (hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid) was analysed and optimized considering three process variables with their range of values given as temperature of 35-50 , time of 60-180 mins and mole ratio of hydrogen peroxide to acetic acid of 1:0.25-1:1 by applying the central composite design of response surface methodology. The ring opening reaction (hydroxylation) of the epoxide to polyhydroxylated oil (lubricant basestock) with ethanol was carried out using the optimum conditions obtained from the epoxidation process. The rubber seed oil, epoxide and lubricant basestock were characterized in terms of physico-chemical properties using standard methods and in terms of functional groups using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Maximum epoxide content of 4.85% and maximum conversion of 71% of rubber seed oil to epoxide was achieved at a temperature of 50􀀀 , reaction time of 180 mins and 1: 0.39 mol/mol of hydrogen peroxide to acetic acid. The predicted values of the epoxidation process reasonably agreed with the experimental ones and model R-squared value of about 95% showed that response surface method can reasonably predict the epoxidation process using a quadratic polynomial model. There was 75% conversion of the epoxide to polyhydroxylated oil (biolubricant basestock), which represents a very high yield. The formation of epoxides and polyhydroxylated oil lead to modification (improvement) in the properties of rubber seed oil as confirmed by the physico-chemical properties and FTIR spectra analysis of the oil, epoxide and lubricant basestock. The study showed that chemical derivatives of rubber seed oils are an attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly alternative to mineral oils for lubricant formulations.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/536 Comparative Evaluation of Bioethanol Production from Pineapple (Ananas comosus) and Cassava (Manihot esculenta)Waste from Warri 2020-09-06T14:35:50+00:00 E.A. Fadairo fadairo_e@pti.edu.ng M. I. Otite–Douglas fadairo_e@pti.edu.ng <p>Fossil fuel is known to increase greenhouse gas emission which has resulted in serious environmental consequences. This study was designed to determine bioethanol production from pineapple(a fructogenic waste) and cassava (a glucogenic waste). It was also designed to allow a comparative analysis of pure ethanol with ethanol produced from the two food wastes with a view to generate an alternative fuel source. The parameters evaluated were the volume ofbioethanol per 100g of waste, percentage (%) purity of bioethanol produced, pH and auto ignition temperature of bioethanol produced. The values obtained were analyzed using the unpaired student’s t- test where appropriate to determine if there are any significant differences in pure ethanol values for those parameters. The result showed thatrelative to the pure ethanol(control), the auto ignition temperature of ethanol produced from the cassava (Manihot esculenta)and pineapple(Ananas comosus)wastes were significantly (p≤0.05) high. The autoignition temperature of ethanol produced from pineapple waste was slightly higher when compared to bioethanol from cassava waste but it was not statistically significant (p&gt;0.05). The volume of ethanol produced from cassava waste was slightly lower (p&gt;0.05), when compared to the volume of the same parameter in the pineapple waste. There was a significant (p≤0.05) decreasein pH of ethanolproduced from pineapple waste when compared to that from cassava waste. The % purity of the bioethanol produced from pineapple waste was higher (p&gt;0.05) when compared to that from the cassava waste. The autoignition temperature of the blend of produced bioethanol was slightly reduced(p&gt;0.05) when compared to the auto ignition temperatures of individual ethanol from separate waste. But, relative to the pure ethanol utilized as a control in this study, the autoignition temperature of the blend was significantly (p≤0.05) high. Finally, it was observed that bioethanolobtained from cassava waste (a glucogenic energysource) produced a lower yield involume with a 15.8 v/100g (ml) value while its fructogenic counterpart (pineapple waste) exhibited a slightly lower autoignition temperature effect (33oC). The autoignition temperature of the waste blend (Cassava-Pine) was 30oC when compared to each waste source alone.A combination of both cassava and pineapple waste yielded better fuel properties and iscampaigned in this study for use in the production of biofuel.</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/513 Purification Potentials of Activated Carbon from Chrysophyllum albidum Seed Shells on Petroleum Fractions. 2020-08-30T16:33:21+00:00 E. Osabohien eosabohien@delsu.edu.ng C. Agbanashi eosabohien@delsu.edu.ng <p>This research work investigates the use of locally sourced activated carbon as adsorbent in removing impurities and odoriferous substances from some petroleum fractions. The activated carbon was prepared from Crysophyllum abidum (cherry) seed shells. The seed shells were cracked to remove the seeds, washed, dried and pulverized. The powder was carbonized in a furnace at 500 0C, cooled and screened with a 100μm sized sieve. The carbonized powder was impregnated with phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide in a mixture ratio of 2:1, stirred vigorously for activation and kept in an oven to dry at 110 0C for 2 h. The activated carbon was washed and dried to constant weight, and in comparison with the commercial type were characterized in terms of the moisture, ash, volatile matter contents, pH, bulk density, iodine adsorption number, silica content and percentage yield and gave 2.20%, 1.50%, 83.50%, 7.15, 0.45 g/cm3, 61.01 mg/g, 0.25% and 22.50% respectively. The activated carbon was applied in the purification of the petroleum fractions (dual purpose kerosene, DPK and premium motor spirit, PMS). The observed density, specific gravity (S.G), initial and final boiling points, flash point, ethanol content and research octane number (RON) of the petroleum fractions before and after the purification process were measured, the results showed that the treated DPK and PMS had improved properties due to the purification potentials of the activated carbons applied on them. The locally sourced activated carbon performed almost as well as the commercial type used, with slight inferiority in RON enhancement. Keywords: Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell, activated carbon, purification and petroleum fractions.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/516 Fuel Properties of Biodiesel from Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) Seed Oils using Whole-Cell Biocatalyst 2020-08-30T16:55:13+00:00 A.O. Mustapha aliru.mustapha@kwasu.edu.ng H.A. Bawa aliru.mustapha@kwasu.edu.ng K.S.M. Ali aliru.mustapha@kwasu.edu.ng <p>Increasing demands coupled with environmental effects of conventional fuels have over time been a source of great concern to seek cost-efficient and environmentally friendly fuels. This work is therefore, to determine the fuel properties of biodiesel from neem (Azadirachta indica) and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed oils using whole-cell biocatalyst. Seeds of both neem and jatropha wyere extracted from kernels using a two-staged mechanical process. Whole-cell biocatalyst-mediated trans-esterification of oils into fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) were achieved by the used of isolated strains of Rhizopus orizae. After pretreatment, the percentage yield of oils from seed kernels of neem and jatropha were found to be 29.49±0.12% and 34.18±0.16% respectively while biodiesel yields from oils of neem and jatropha were 91.20±0.02% and 89.90±0.08%. The neem and jatropha based biodiesels had specific gravities of 0.879±0.002 and 0.877±0.001, flash points (173±1.11 and 135±1.14oC); fire points (205±0.11 and (193±0.01oC) water and sediments (0.04±0.001 and 0.02±0.001%); kinematic viscosity (2.30±03 and 2.10±0.06 cst @ 37.8oC); API gravity (29.48±0.37) and (29.85±1.9); free fatty acids (0.65±0.03 and 0.38±0.04% KOH); ash contents (0.03±0.001 and 0.01±0.001%); iodine number (79.6±0.1 and 20 ±0.2 mg I2/g); saponification value (186.38 ± 0.17) and (191.75 ± 0.11mg (KOH)/g); and peroxide value (7.91±0.09 and 2.50 ± 0.03mg/kg), respectively. Fuel properties of biodiesel compared favorably with American standards for testing materials (ASTM) established limits for biodiesel fuels which showed great potentials in the use of non-food oils coupled with green chemistry in the field of biodiesel research and development.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/519 PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM TEAK LEAVES FOR THE DECOLORIZATION OF PALM OIL 2020-08-30T17:22:37+00:00 E. I. Ofulue Ofulue faadekola@yahoo.fr F. A. Adekola faadekola@yahoo.fr V. O Adimula faadekola@yahoo.fr <p>The bleaching efficiency of activated carbon prepared from teak leaves was investigated for the removal of pigments from palm oil. The adsorbents were activated using KOH and FeCl3 as activating agents. The effects of adsorbent dosage (2% - 6 %), contact time (15 min. – 90 min.) and temperature (30 °C – 80 °C) were studied, while the unactivated adsorbent was used as standard. The ash content, moisture content, volatile matter content, and fixed carbon content were determined and the adsorptive bleaching of palm oil investigated using 1.2 g activated carbon with 20 g crude palm oil. Bleaching efficiency was observed to be 93.09 % and 96.68 % for the KOH and FeCl3 activated adsorbent respectively, while the unactivated adsorbent was observed to have a bleaching efficiency of 89.21 %. The optimum bleaching efficiency was observed at a temperature of 70 °C, adsorbent dosage of 6 %, and contact time of 90 min. Results obtained suggests that teak leaves can be a source of low-cost adsorbent for the removal of pigments from palm oil which is of great relevance in obtaining a clean environment.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/522 Petroleum Potential of Gombe Formation, Kolmani River-1 Well Gongola Basin, NE Nigeria 2020-08-30T18:21:39+00:00 T. A. Adedosu taadedosu@lautech.edu.ng S. A. Alao taadedosu@lautech.edu.ng T.R. Ajayi taadedosu@lautech.edu.ng A. Akinlua taadedosu@lautech.edu.ng <p>Gombe Formation is one of the promising potential source-rock of petroleum in the Gongola basin based on its appreciable amount of organic matter. The present study is therefore aimed at evaluating the hydrocarbon potential of Gombe Formation. Ditch-cutting samples were collected from the depth of 731.5 m to 1554.5 m from Gombe Formation that penetrated the Kolmani River-1 well. The source-rock potential was evaluated based on kerogen analysis and soluble organic matter content using Fourier Transform- Infra red spectroscopic (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometric (GC-MS) techniques respectively. There is presence of peak at 900-1000 cm-1 which is due to CH2 rocking vibration in long chain aliphatic substances, which is characteristic of liptinite macerals indicating good potential source-rock for oil and gas. The n-alkane ranges from C11-C33 maximizing at nC16 which suggests that the organic matter are majorly derived from marine organic matter. The Pr/Ph (1.49-1.92) shows that the organic matter was deposited under sub-oxic condition. The distribution of hopanes, homohopanes (C27-C29) steranes, (C0-C4) alkylated naphthalenes and (C0-C3) alkylated phenanthrenes indicate the presence of angiosperm, gymnosperm, algae, marine and bacteria input to the organic matter contained in the samples. Also the plot of DBT/P vs. Pr/Ph classifies the samples into zone 3 (i.e. marine shale and other lacustrine). Various maturity parameters computed from saturate biomarker and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions shows that the samples are low mature with the moderately mature zone at the bottom (&gt;1408.2 m) of Gombe Formation. In conclusion, the kerogen was probably derived from type II/III organic matter capable of generating both oil and gas and the moderately mature zone lies at the bottom of the Formation. <br>Key words: Lacustrine, Gombe formation, Maturity, Hydrocarbon, Kerogen</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/525 Hydrogeophysical Investigation of Groundwater Systems in Otukpo, Benue State, North-Central Nigeria 2020-08-30T18:41:04+00:00 M. Ameh geoama76@gmail.com A. N. Amadi geoama76@gmail.com C. I. Unuevho geoama76@gmail.com J. S. Ejepu geoama76@gmail.com <p>Hydrogeophysical investigation of groundwater systems in Otukpo, Benue State, Nigeria has been carried out using vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique to delineate the groundwater potentials across the study area. Ten (10) vertical electrical soundings were carried out during the geophysical survey using the Schlumberger configuration of electrical resistivity method with maximum current and potential electrode spacing of 600 meters and 80 meters respectively. The VES data was qualitatively and quantitatively interpreted using the conventional curve matching and computer iteration methods. The result of qualitative interpretation depicts that the VES curves obtained within the study area are mainly the QH and KQH which are typically indicative of a sedimentary terrain. The results of the quantitative interpretation reveal that the resistivity values from shallow subsurface to the depth of about 500 m of the VES stations ranges from 3 Ωm to 1250 Ωm. The VES results also show that the study is characterized by seven (7) different inferred lithological layers namely; topsoil, sand/silt, laterite, clay, shale, sandstone and the basement rock. The result also reveals that the depth to water-saturated unit ranges from 450 to 500 meters within the study area. Two distinguished aquifer types were obtained within the area namely; unconfined and confined aquifers. The findings reveal that the future borehole drillers should target the confined aquifers situated between the depths of 450meters to 500 meters beneath the surface for sustainable groundwater yield across the study area.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/528 PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF VOCS EMISSION IN OPEN DUMPSITE USING GENERALIZED LINEAR MODEL 2020-08-30T18:58:42+00:00 A. Ighodaro nobleighos@yahoo.com J. M. Okuo nobleighos@yahoo.com D. Okuonghae nobleighos@yahoo.com <p>Ambient air quality assessment and regulations plays an important role in air quality management. Forty-five (45) air samples were collected for both wet and dry season of the year (October 2016- September 2017). The air samples were collected by passive sampler (Drager ORSA 5). The samples were analyzed for VOCs, PM2.5 and some elements according to standard methods. In this study, a method to predict aromatic VOCs concentrations in the urban outdoor environment was developed based on the Generalized Linear Models (GLM). The method is based on the relationship developed between atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants and meteorological variables (i.e. ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed). The developed GLM model considers VOCs concentrations as a dependent variable, and PM2.5 pollutants and meteorological parameters as explanatory independent variables. A comparison of obtained prediction with observed values showed that the developed model indicated good performance in estimating VOCs concentration. It should be mentioned that the puissance of the model developed is a function of the covariates. This observation suggest that the model with predicted meteorological variables can be engage in environmental management system were data are not readily available. <br>Keywords: VOC, Generalized Linear Models (GLM), Open Dumpsite, Benin City</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/531 Ciprofloxacin loaded castor oil based emulsion: Its antimicrobial, hematotoxicity and soft tissue pathophysiological study in Wister rats 2020-08-30T19:15:11+00:00 A. Bamisaye abayomibamisaye@gmail.com C. O. Eromosele abayomibamisaye@gmail.com E. O. Dare abayomibamisaye@gmail.com O. A. Akinloye abayomibamisaye@gmail.com <p>The emergence of nanocarrier for drug delivery has been flanked with great achievements in the field of nanomedicine. It is however unsafe to assume their toxicological safety. This necessitated examining the toxico-dynamics of ciprofloxacin loaded castor oil based emulsion (COAB+Cp). The emulsions were prepared by mechano-chemical process. The effects of 10 mL per kg of body-weight (BW) of COAB+Cp was estimated in Adult Wistar rats (n=10) for 21 days vis-à-vis a control set up, treated with equal volume of distilled water. The biochemical and haematological parameters were conducted with histopathology of the heart, kidney, spleen and liver. Also, the antimicrobial study on Bacillus. Subtilis (BS) was carried out using the agar well diffusion method. No observable abnormal change in BW gain of both test and control animals. Treatment of animals with COAB+Cp did not cause any observable significant change at P &gt; 0.05 in the blood-chemistry parameters and hematological indices. The photopathological examinations indicates that the histological architecture of vital organs (heart, liver, kidney and spleen) was not compromised in COAB+Cp treated animals. While the recorded value of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of COAB+Cp corroborated its mean zone of inhibition (ZI) values, signifying a better bioactivity of COAB+Cp compared to Cp on BS. COAB+Cp has no cardiotoxic, hematotoxic and hepatotoxic effects on Wistar rats, with increased potency of the encapsulated Cp thus appears promising as a safe vehicle for oral delivery of ciprofloxacin.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/534 SPECTROSCOPIC AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISATION OF MUSHROOM EXTRACT (Pleurotus tuberregium) IN COMPARISON WITH SOME ANTIGLAUCOMA MEDICATIONS (0.5% TIMOLOL AND 0.005% LATANOPROST) 2020-09-06T14:16:18+00:00 G.A. Akinlabi gaakinlabi@icloud.com C. Uwumwonse gaakinlabi@icloud.com <p>Pleurotus tuberregium, an edible fungus, occurs in both tropical and subtropical regions of the world Scientific evidences exist for the use of P. tuberregium in the treatment of high blood pressure, diabetic hypertriglyceredemia, fungal and bacterial infections, tumours and raised intraocular pressure. However, its comparative chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis with anti-glaucoma medications has not been extensively explored. This study separated the bioactive constituents of the mushroom extract and compared it with 0.5% Timolol and 0.005% Latanoprost. Fractions of the extracts were obtained through Column chromatography utilizing silica gel. Retardation factors and migration speeds of the fractions were then obtained using Thin Layer Chromatography. UV-VIS spectrophotometry was then utilized to obtain a more refined result. The experiment produced comparative retardation factors and retardation factors of the extracts with those of the antiglaucoma medication. Spectroscopic studies on the extract revealed that it has an absorption spectrum within the ultra violet wavelength range with a λmax of 320nm. All spots for this study were produced with a reproducibility factor better than 1.5% RSD.&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/537 The Effects of Watermelon Rind Flour on the Functional and Proximate Properties of Wheat Bread 2020-09-06T14:43:52+00:00 C. Imoisi imoisi.chinyere@gmail.com J.U. Iyasele imoisi.chinyere@gmail.com U.C. Michael imoisi.chinyere@gmail.com E.E. Imhontu imoisi.chinyere@gmail.com <p>The present study was undertaken to develop bread from composite flours. Composite flours were prepared by blending wheat flour with watermelon rind flour in ratios of 100:0 (AB1), 90:10 (AB2), 80:20 (AB3), 70:30 (AB4) and 60:40 (AB5), respectively. This study was carried out to ascertain the effects of watermelon rind flour at different replacement levels (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%) on the proximate and functional properties of composite wheat bread. The results of proximate properties determination on wheat/flour blend gave low bulk densities of 0.54g/cm3 to 0.60g/cm3, high water absorption capacity of 2.389 to 3.044 g/g as well as a high swelling capacity of 5.764 to 7.610 g/g and a low oil absorption capacity of 1.608 to 2.150 g/g. The results of proximate composition of composite bread revealed an increase in % protein, % carbohydrate and % ash from 15.7% to 18.8%, 47.1% to 52.0% and 0.6% to 1.2% respectively and a subsequent decrease in % fat from 18.4% to 13.8. There was a reduction in energy density for composite bread. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and bulk density were increased with increase in the incorporation of watermelon rind flour with wheat flour. Thus, the results indicate that by incorporating watermelon rind flour, it is possible to enhance the nutritional quality, chemical and functional properties of bread.</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/514 Investigation on the quality of water from Jabi Lake in Abuja, Nigeria 2020-08-30T16:40:51+00:00 Emeka Chima Ogoko eogoko@noun.edu.ng Ajayi Olayinka Sylvester eogoko@noun.edu.ng <p>Surface water may constitute public health issues if the water is contaminated. Consequent upon this assertion, the physicochemical parameters and tr ace metal concentration of Jabi Lake surface water were analysed and compared with WHO standards. Sixteen water samples were taken for analysis from Jabi Lake within Abuja in Nigeria. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were adopted in the analysis of the physicochemical parameters while heavy metals ions determination was performed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results obtained revealed marked differences in the levels of some physicochemical properties and trace metal ion concentration in the surface water samples when compared with WHO standards. Though most physicochemical parameters were within acceptable and safe limits, but with nitrate having higher concentrations. The concentrations of manganese, iron, cobalt, lead and chromium were well above the WHO maximum permissible limits for surface water. The pollution index of manganese, iron, cobalt, lead and chromium were above unity (1.0), indicating very high level of pollution. The results of the physicochemical and trace metal analysis when compared with WHO suggest that the water samples from Jabi Lake was not suitable for drinking while the concentrations of the metal ions were found decreasing in this order; Pb ˃Fe˃Cr˃Mn˃Co˃Zn. </p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/517 Optimization of Vegetable Oil-Based Biodiesels by Multi-Response Surface Methodology (MRS) using Desirability Functions 2020-08-30T17:02:52+00:00 A. O. Mustapha aliru.mustapha@kwasu.edu.ng R.A. Adepoju aliru.mustapha@kwasu.edu.ng Y. T. Afolabi aliru.mustapha@kwasu.edu.ng <p>Environmental concerns associated with petroleum resources have propelled the development of sustainable and renewable alternatives to petroleum based products. Vegetable oil is one amongst the foremost abundant bio-based feedstocks. The interest in using vegetable oils and low molecular weight alcohols by direct transesterification have shown great potential as alternatives to petroleum-based diesel, and the production of bio-based diesel continues to increase. Utilization of multi-response surface methodology (MRS) for the most effective combination effect or response from the uses of input to output variables to optimize the yield and higher heating values (HHV) of biodiesels was investigated. In this work, utilizing variety of non-edible vegetable oils like castor (Ricinus communis L), jatropha (Jatropha curcas), and neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds and several process variables or inputs, including mixing time, mixing speed, process temperature and catalyst dosage to formulate high quality renewable fuels were further explored. The outputs were yield, viscosity, higher heating value, density and turbidity. The proposed optimization scenarios for biodiesel using the statistical (MRS) models was aimed to optimize the processes to achieved high conversion and higher heating values, while reducing the reaction time, turbidity, density, and viscosity in the samples. The results showed catalyst dosage as the most important variable for all the three samples. For maximum yield of 100%, the molar ratio of 6.25, catalyst of 0.75 wt.%, reaction speed of 499.99 rpm, reaction time of 19.88 min and temperature of 24.50 oC were found as optimal conditions; while the molar ratio of 5.60, catalyst of 1.01 wt.%, the reaction speed of 499.5 rpm, reaction time of 20.00 min and temperature of 35.50 oC were optimal conditions for maximum biodiesel yield.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/520 DENSITY EFFECTS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH MAJOR FLAME CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED FIRE TOLERANT TREES IN SOUTH-EAST NIGERIA: A LOOK AT OVEN AND SUN DRIED TIMBERS 2020-08-30T17:32:11+00:00 V. N. Okafor vnw.okafor@unizik.edu.ng U. W. Okafor vnw.okafor@unizik.edu.ng R. I. Anyalebechi vnw.okafor@unizik.edu.ng M. C. Obiadi vnw.okafor@unizik.edu.ng J. N. Obiefuna vnw.okafor@unizik.edu.ng C. P. Okonkwo vnw.okafor@unizik.edu.ng <p>Physical and flame characteristics of fifteen tree species in South-East Nigeria were investigated. The tree species Daniellia oliveri, Anacadium occidentale, Vitex doniana, Lonchocarpus griffonianus, Gmelina arborea, Nauclea latifolia, Tectona grandis, Mangifera indica, Delonix regia, Newbouldia laevis, Azadirachta indica, Dialium guineense, Terminalia superba, Manilkara obovata and Irvingia gabonensis were identified and named by taxonomists. The aim was to investigate the effects of oven and sun dried densities of timbers on major flame characteristics (ignition time, flame propagation rate, after glow time, flame duration and ash formation) and to establish timber density relationship with the flame properties. Physical properties (density and moisture content) and flame characteristics of all the timbers were carried out using their respective standard methods. Oven and sun dried densities of timbers ranged from 0.39 to 0.97 and 0.45 to 1.16 g/cm3 respectively. Moisture content of oven and sun dried timbers ranged from 8.02 to 11.56% and 8.15 to 11.65 % respectively. The range of values for ignition time were (3.00-10.00) seconds for oven dried timbers and (5.00-10.00) seconds for sun dried timbers. Flame propagation rate ranged between 0.15 and 0.27 cm/s and from 0.09 to 0.25 cm/s for oven and sun dried timbers respectively. The values for flame duration ranged from 12.00 to 56.00 seconds for oven dried timbers and 7.00 to 45.00 seconds for sun dried timbers. Afterglow times of oven and sun dried timbers ranged from 70.00 to 267.00 and 19.00 to 188.00 seconds respectively. Ash formation values ranged from 0.19 to 2.38 and 0.25 to 2.46 % for oven and sun dried timbers respectively. Combustion/pyrolysis pattern of oven and sun dried timbers on exposure to fire was similar. Density related to flame propagation rate, although, for the denser hard woods above 0.60g/cm3 and 0.70g/cm3 for oven and sun dried timbers respectively, this dependence was less straight forward. The flame characteristics of the oven dried timbers compared favourably with sun dried timbers and showed that ignition time, flame duration, afterglow time and ash formation have no clear relationship with timber density.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/523 COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT, PRELIMINARY SCREENING AND GC- FID PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS AND PETROLEUM ETHER EXTRACTS OF PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS LEAVES. 2020-08-30T18:28:49+00:00 E.P Berezi sirepberezi@yahoo.com E. Mirinn sirepberezi@yahoo.com P.K. Berezi sirepberezi@yahoo.com A. E. Soroh sirepberezi@yahoo.com <p>The Gas Chromatography– Flame lonization Detector (GC-FID) method was employed in this study to evaluate the phytochemical constituents of both the aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of phyllanthus amarus leaves. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids Glycosides, Phenols, Saponins, and Tannins. Further analysis revealed a total concentration of Phenol as 82.95mg/100g (4.46%) in the aqueous extract, Tannins 722.77mg/100g(38.82%),Alkaloids was 466.82mg/100(25.07%) while in the petroleum ether extract, Flavonoids was 472.59mg/100g (29.50%), Saponins 12.60mg/100g (0.79%) and Glycosides 18.63mg/100g (1.16%). These results are suggestive that P.amarus is endowed with phytochemicals that contains therapeutic potencies which support its use as traditional remedies for the treatment of variety of ailments.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/526 DETERMINATION OF THE WATER QUALITY INDEX (WQI) OF A FRESH WATER STREAM (Mini-Whuo) ELIOZU, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA. 2020-08-30T18:46:46+00:00 I.R. ALLISON irimaa@yahoo.com C.C. OBUNWO irimaa@yahoo.com G.A. COOKEY irimaa@yahoo.com O.S. BULL irimaa@yahoo.com <p>In order to assess the potability and agricultural application of Mini-Whuo stream in Eliozu Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; the physicochemical properties, heavy metal levels (Fe, Cr, Cd, Pb &amp; Ni) and microbiological load of water were evaluated. Five stations were established and sampling made for a period of six months (May-October 2019). Various water samples were collected for the analysis of physicochemical properties, heavy metal and microbiological levels, using titrimetric, spectrophotometric and microbiological methods respectively. Results obtained from the analyses showed that, temperature ranged between (28.7±0.7-30.9±1.9ºC), pH (6.4±0.0-6.7±0.3), electrical conductivity (82±20-172.0±14 µS/cm), total dissolved solids (41±1-86.5±71.1mg/l), turbidity (8.1±1.6-18.1±2.8 NTU), chloride (5.60±1.63-7.76±0.96 mg/l). Levels of heavy metals analyzed for water were below detection limit of 0.01mg/l, except for Fe which ranged between (3±1-4.6±0.8 mg/l). Microbiological study of water showed that the water had (2.6±0.5-6.4±0.6 x103 cfu/MLN) count of total heterotrophic bacteria, (44.3±9- 323.8±44 MPN/100ml-1) count of total coliform bacteria count and (4.3±2.7-59.5±16.9 MPN/100ml-1) faecal coliform bacteria count. From the result of analyses it was observed that iron, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, and the microbiological load of the water were high when compared with WHO standards, and this may be attributed to the disposal of wastes such as, human and animal wastes into the water body. Water quality index (WQI) method according to the weighted arithmetic WQI, where (WQI &lt; 50 = excellent water quality), (50 &gt; WQI &lt; 100 = good water quality), (100 &gt; WQI &lt; 200 = poor water quality), (200 &gt; WQI &lt; 300 = very poor water quality), and (WQI &gt; 300 = unfit for drinking). Based on the WQI calculated for the Mini-Whuo stream 1156, the stream is not suitable for domestic use.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/529 Antioxidant Activity and Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaf Extract and Fractions 2020-08-30T19:04:28+00:00 A. Ighodaro nobleighos@yahoo.com O.K Ogbeide nobleighos@yahoo.co <p>Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the development of many diseases. Indeed, the increase in total antioxidant status is imperative in the recuperation from these diseases. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaves were determined in this study. The powdered dried leaves of C. pulcherrima were screened for their effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and fractions were estimated using established methods. Concentrations of the plant extracts required for 50% inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging effect (IC50) were recorded as 3.20, 48.11, 33.12, 9.15, 27.26, 17.90, 272.18 and 55.51μg/ml for Ascorbic acid, 100% n-hexane, 50% n-hexane: 50% ethyl acetate, 100% ethyl acetate, 50% ethyl acetate:50% methanol, 100% methanol, 90% methanol:10% water fractions and crude extract, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were highest for 100% ethyl acetate fraction. The leaf extract and fractions of C. pulcherrima exhibited notable radical scavenging activity and therefore corroborate its use as a natural plant antioxidant by preventing free radical damage.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/532 Using GC-MS for natural product analysis in Nigeria: Problems and prospects 2020-08-30T19:23:36+00:00 B. O. Odjobo igolij@gmail.com N. Ichoron igolij@gmail.com N. P. Igoli igolij@gmail.com J. O. Igoli igolij@gmail.co <p>The absence or idle state of analytical equipment such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometers and chromatographic techniques has constrained natural products research in Nigeria. Presently, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has become the more easily available method in Nigeria for the identification of natural products in extracts. This method is sometimes fraught with non-reproducible results and the identification of non-natural or biosynthesized compounds. Several of the extracts analyzed are not volatile, some of the analysts are not competent and certified reference standards are hardly used. These coupled with poor library or database matches and data processing among others lead to the identification of compounds not recognizable from the extract or plants materials under study. This review discusses some of the problems involved in the use of this method for dereplication studies of plant extracts in Nigeria and makes some suggestions for improvement.</p> 2020-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/535 Methanol oxidation over copper supported catalysts. 2020-09-06T14:28:41+00:00 L. Leke l.leke@bsum.edu.ng O A. Olawuyi l.leke@bsum.edu.ng S. O Okopi l.leke@bsum.edu.ng T T Weor l.leke@bsum.edu.ng R. P.K. Wells l.leke@bsum.edu.ng J. A. Anderson l.leke@bsum.edu.ng <p>Oxidation of methanol has been studied over a range of temperature and contact times with a synthesised, 1wt % copper catalysts supported over Al2O3 and SiO2. Characterisation of these catalysts was performed by nitrogen adsorption and porosity measurements (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO. BET measurement revealed surface areas reducing from 105 to 104 m2g-1 for pure alumina to copper supported catalyst while the silica ones reduced from 247 to 240 m2g-1 for pure silica to the copper supported respectively. Pore sizes also reduced from 32 – 23 nm and 23 – 20.3 nm for the alumina and silica catalysts respectively. No crystalline phases from the diffraction patterns of the loaded metals were found to be present on the XRD. CO adsorption studies showed the presence of small cluster metal atoms adsorbed on the surface of the catalysts with Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR) experiments revealing the presence of partially oxidised and well dispersed Cu atoms. The alumina supported catalyst were more active than the silica ones while for selectivity and yield for formaldehyde, the reverse was the case. The alumina supported significantly showed high yields of Dimethyl ether (DME) while the silica showed high yield for methyl formate (MF) with COx and CH4 detected in very small quantities. </p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria