Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-top: 0px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria is a bi-annual publication of original research reports in pure and applied chemistry. Among our regulations include</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">1) Manuscript submitted to this journal is not published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere either in parts or whole. Again the author agrees that the copyright for his article is totally transferred to the Editorial Board of this Journal once the said article is accepted for publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">2) Authors that work for organizations must obtain the written consent of their employer(s) prior to this publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">3) By this agreement, the organization surrenders its copyright to this journal.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">4) No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form without the permission in writing from the copyright holder.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">While the Editorial Board makes every effort to ensure that no misleading information or statement appears in this journal. It is made clear herein that the data and information in the articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Consequently, the Editorial board and their respective staff and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such misleading data and/or information.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">©CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (CSN)</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"><strong> Prof. Joseph Anireju LORI</strong><sub>BSc, MSc, PhD, FCSN, FICCON, FRSC</sub></p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> Editor-in-Chief</p> Chemical Society of Nigeria en-US Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 0795-2066 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF FICUS SUR SEED OIL (moraceae) OBTAINED IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA. http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/686 <p>In order to reduce the use of industrial trans fat in food processing for human consumption, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), and to dramatically reduce cardiovascular disease as a result of its effects. The fatty acid profile of Ficus sur oil seeds was examined in order to consider an alternative to trans fat in meals. The composition of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) extracts of Ficus Sur, a member of the Moraceae family, was determined using GC-MS. The results showed the percentage composition of the various constituents of the seed oils as follows: carbonic acid (4.594%), octadecanoic acid (1.341%), olean-12-en-3-ol, acetate (3β) (40.780%), 1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl-(3.342%), lupeol (15.904%), 1-eicosanol or arachidic alcohol (2.39%), eicosyl octyl ether (1.328%), octadecane, 1-chloro-(7.368%) and nonacos-1-ene (1.378%). Stearic acid was observed to be the only fatty acid present in the oil seeds. The presence of stearic acid in the seed oil is promising and inductive of being an alternative replacement in the gradual phasing out of trans fat in human diet. <br><br></p> G.C. Nwanisobi C. I. Aghanwa C. U. Ezeagu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.686 ISOLATION WITH CHARACTERIZATION OF COLUMBIN AND NOVEL CLERODANE FURANO-DITERPENE WITH GC-MS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ANALYSES OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/689 <p>The methanol extract of the seed of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre, was subjected to partition chromatography in gradient elutions, using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) and HPLC techniques. It led to the isolation of two compounds labelled as DO5d-2 and DO6, whose structures were determined by complete analyses of their spectroscopic data, utilizing modern techniques (LC-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR, DEPT-NMR, HSQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY). The Essential oils of the leaf and stem were extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger-typed apparatus and analysed by GC-MS technique. It was subsequently subjected to antimicrobial analysis using the agar diffusion method. The major isolated compound – DO6, was further characterized as ‘columbin’, while DO5d-2 was characterized as a new clerodane type furano-diterpene, which has not been previously reported. Essential oils obtained by hydro distillation from leaf and stem of Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre, were dominated by aldehydes in 10.93% and 15.14% respectively. Fifty (50) compounds were identified in leaf oil comprising 68.73% of it, with phytol (6.62%) and n-hexanol (6.28%) as most abundant compounds. Twenty-eight (28) compounds identified in the stem oil comprised 44.90% containing pentadecanal (14.72%) and phytol (6.38%) as its prominent compounds. The antimicrobial result showed the oil from the leaf was active against all the bacterial and fungi tested, while that from the stem revealed moderate activity against the tested bacterial and fungi.</p> D. O. Moronkola M. Jaspars E. Rainer E. T. Oluwabusola R. Petrelli F. K. Nzekoue L Cappellacci C. Giordani J. N. Tabudravu P. Osamudiamen C. O. Ajiboye E.O. Ojah K. A. Salawu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.689 SYNTHESIS AND ANTICANDIDAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF 5-CHLORO-1-ETHYL-2-METHYL-N-PHENYL-1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-SULPHONAMIDE AND 5-CHLORO-N-(3-CHLOROPHENYL)-1-ETHYL-2-METHYL-1H-IMIDAZOLE-4-SULPHONAMIDE http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/672 <p>5-Chloro-1-ethyl-2-methyl-<em>N-</em>phenyl-<em>1H-</em>imidazole-4-sulphonamide and 5-chloro<em>-N</em>-(3-chlorophen- yl)-1-ethyl-2-methyl<em>-1H-</em>imidazole-4-sulphonamide were synthesised and screened for antifungal activity against <em>Candida albicans </em>and some bacteria. Sodium carbonate solution (10%) was used to catalyse the reaction of 5-chloro-1-ethyl-2-methylimidazole-4-sulphonyl chloride with aniline and 3-chloroaniline and to absorb HCl generated in high yields. The purity of the two sulphonamides was tested by TLC and characterised by FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR and screened against tested microorganisms using the standard microbiological method. The <em>in vitro</em> anticandidal study of the compounds revealed that 5-chloro-<em>N</em>-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-ethyl-2-methyl-1<em>H</em>-imidazole-4-sulphonamide exhibited moderate activities in comparison with standard itraconazole. The compounds did not show antibacterial activities when screened against Gram-positive<em> (methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, </em>and<em> Bacillus subtilis)</em>, and Gram-negative (<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli,</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae).</em></p> O. B. Ovonramwen B. J. Owolabi A. P. Oviawe A. Falodun Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i5.672 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI-OXIDANT AND ACTIVITIES OF FRACTIONATED ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Moringa Oleifera LEAVE http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/675 <p>Moringa oleifera leave has been reputed for the treatment of different ailments, this work thus aims at isolating the active principle(s) that are responsible for these activities. M. oleifera leave was extracted with distilled ethanol, concentrated to afford the crude extract (210.2 g). The crude extract was partitioned using n – hexane (NH), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (MeOH) in an increasing order of polarity to afford 12 fractions. The fractions were subjected to biological testing and MOF8 and MOF11 were selected for further purification based on their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The two fractions (MOF8 and MOF11) were purified on a silica gel open column, using NH, DCM, EA and MeOH in an increasing order of polarity to afford ten and eight fractions respectively. Further biological test on these fractions indicates superior activities of MOF118 which was further purified as described earlier to afford four fractions. Further biological testing on these fractions indicates that and MOF118.3 and MO118.4 are more active in the antioxidant and antimicrobial analysis. Phytochemical screening of MOF11 and MOF11 indicates the presence of flavonoids, saponin, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides and steroids.</p> O. M. Ameen A. A. Akinolu T. Garuba G. E. Ebito B. Z. Arowolo E. O. Oyebanji Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.675 OPTIMIZATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTION FROM Cymbopogon spp (LEMON GRASS) AND ITS APPLICATION IN PERFUME FORMULATION http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/678 <p>Most of the imported perfume products in our market today are synthetic and their usage over time result in skin irritation and other health effects which the cause is not easily known to end users. The present study focused on the yield optimization of the essential oil extraction from leaves of Cymbopogon spp, and its application in perfume formulation. The optimization is by applying two different techniques and identifying the technique with the greater efficiency in terms of yield at a given condition. The steam distillation yield 1.29% compared with 1.13% obtained via Enfleurage. This shows that for optimal yield, steam distillation is more effective in the extraction of essential oil from Cymbopogon spp plants than the enfleurage extraction. This is probably due to the loss of volatile components during the pounding process that preceded extraction. The compound with the highest area percentage in the GC-MS analysis of Cymbopogon spp was 1-Decanol, 2-hexyl- (3.8471%). Although for the purpose of perfume production, L-Menthol which also has a high area percentage (3.5439 %) is of utmost importance as the fragrance of Lemongrass oil extract and its peculiar flavour can be attributed to the abundant presence of levo-menthol. Levo-menthol is used for the treatment, control, prevention, and improvement of the following diseases, conditions and symptoms which includes; occasional minor irritation, Pain, Sore mouth, Sore throat and Cough. It can therefore be inferred that steam distillation at a defined conditions can be adopted as a better method for extraction of essential oil compounds from plants for the purpose of perfume making. Production of perfume using formulation ratio (4:3:3) of alcohol, essential oil from Cymbopogon spp and fixatives respectively gave a good organic perfume with almost zero side reaction response across the different chemistry of bodies and materials applied.</p> M. Ibrahim G. E. Ankwai P. Taave J. R. Gungshik J. A. Wapwera Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.678 ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF EXTRACTS PRODUCED BY ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE ROOT OF Lawsonia inermis ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF EXTRACTS PRODUCED BY ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE ROOT OF Lawsonia inermis http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/681 <p>Endophytic fungi produced a secondary metabolite similar to their host plant; therefore it can be used as a source of producing active metabolites which lead in drug discoveries. The present study evaluate the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from Lawsonia inermis and isolation of bioactive compounds for new antimicrobial agent. Fresh plant root materials were used for the isolation process, Aspergillus niger was identified as the species present on the plant. The screening of fungal for biological active secondary metabolites was carried out on malt broth fermentation. The broth filtrate was extracted with ethyl acetate and partitioned using a separating funnel. Disc diffusion methods of an antimicrobial sensitivity test at 100μg/disc, 50μg/disc, 25μg/disc 12.5μg/disc was adopted in testing the bioactivity of the extract against two clinical bacterial isolates of staphylococcus Aureus, Escheria coli and two clinical fungal isolates of Candida Albican and Aspergillus Flavus using disc diffution techniques. The extract were further subjected to phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites using standard procedures. The sensitivity test results showed that all the tested isolates are sensitive to extract at 12.5µg/disc as follows: Staphylococcus Aureus (10mm) , Escheria coli (11mm) , Candida Albican (7mm) and Aspergillus Flavus (8mm) . The result of phytochemical screening indicates the presence of alkaloids, cardical glycosides ,resins , saponins ,tannins , triterpenoids .The bioassay from the ethyl acecate fraction (HR) of the metabolite using column chromatography ,lead to the isolation of three pure compounds. The results of the antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds indicated that (HR-102) was more potent against candida albican (11mm) at 12.5μg/disc followed by staphylococcus aureus (10mm) at 12.5μg/disc, escheria coli (9mm) at 12.5μg/disc, aspergillus flavus (8mm) at 12.5μg/disc. This signifies the potency for the development of therapeutic agent against pathogenic microorganisms. phytochemical screening of the three extracts fraction revealed the presence of alkaloids , steroids ,resins , triterpenoids .</p> H. A. Audi S. Y. Mudi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.681 SOLID-STATE SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF Fe (II) COMPLEX DERIVED FROM PARACETAMOL http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/684 <p>New solid-state metal complex of Fe (II) with paracetamol (ligand), that is, [Fe(para)2Cl2] were synthesized mechanically in 1:2 ratio. The complex has been characterized using physicochemical properties and spectral studies. From the IR and electronic spectral studies, the spectra of the complex were different from that of ligand suggesting the formation of coordination compound. Paracetamol was found to be bidentate ligand in which Fe (II) ion coordinated through the oxygen atom of carbonyl of ketone and nitrogen atom of amide in which the complex is assumed to have octahedral geometry. The complex has shown good antimicrobial activities. The solid-state synthetic method is quick and gives a higher yield, without the need of solvent or heating. Its present higher efficiency in terms of materials, time and energy compared to solution-based synthesis. It is therefore, recommended among others that, solid-state synthesis method should be used in the synthesizing drugs with metals.</p> S. Jibril K. A. Baraya S. Muhammad I. Musa A. Garba S. B. Adamu I. Bello Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.684 HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/687 <p>This study investigates the PAH levels in soils around five fuel stations namely: Kwararafa fuel station, Capaduck, Oasis and Ganaco fuel station all in Wukari local government area of Taraba State, Nigeria. The stratified sampling technique was applied in sample collection, extraction and purification by altra-sonication and column chromatography respectively. Quantification of PAHs content by means of GC-MS, The study revealed that the 5.83 μg/kg total composition of the 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the test soil was ten times more than the 0.11 μg/kg content of the control soil sample, where dibenz[a,h]anthracene (0.827±0.174 μg/kg) and benz[a]pyrene (0.535±0.174 μg/kg) were the most abundant terms of toxicity based on benzo(a)pyrene-equivalents concentration. Nevertheless there is no human health risk due to inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact respectively.</p> E. A. Yerima A. U. Itodo R. Sha’Ato R. A. Wuana G. O. Egah S. P. Ma’aji Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.687 EFFECT OF SOLID LOADINGS ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM THE CO-DIGESTION OF CORN STALKS WITH COW DUNG http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/690 <p>In an extension to our previous work where we investigated the anaerobic digestion of Corn stalk (CS) and Cow dung (CD) with co-digestion experiments at initial total solid loading of 37.5%. This paper has investigated the anaerobic co-digestion of CS and CD at lower solid loadings of 10%, 15 % and 20% TS. These experiments were also carried out at different substrate mixing ratios of CS-CD 1:1 and CS-CD 1:2. The anaerobic digestion was carried out in a digester designed and fabricated locally with retention time of 45 days. Results show a maximum Biogas Yield of 67.85L/Kg TS and 75.75L/Kg TS for 10%TS at CS-CD 1:1 and CS-CD 1:2 respectively. Experiments carried out at 20% TS showed the lowest Biogas Yield/Kg of 44.5L/Kg and 50.38L/Kg for CS-CD 1:1 and CS-CD 1:2 respectively. Results also showed that studies carried out at CS-CD 1:2 showed higher biogas yields for substrate concentrations of 10%, 15 % and 20% TS when compared to corresponding experiments carried out at a mixing ratio of CS-CD 1:1.</p> I J Ona S M Loya H O Agogo N Surma Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.690 PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIMIROBIAL SCREENING AND HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS OF STEM-BARK AND ROOT EXTRACTS OF NEWBOULDIA LAEVIS (BOUNDARY TREE) http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/673 <p>Increasing awareness of multi-drug resistant strains of microorganisms and the hazards associated with the use of synthetic / orthodox drugs has increased investigations on plant extracts as possible alternative drugs. Extracts of Newbouldia laevis stem-bark and root were subjected to phytochemical and antimicrobial screening as well as heavy metal concentration content. The aim was to investigate the potentiality of using the extracts as alternative to synthetic / orthodox drugs and conduct ecological, and human health risk assessment of&nbsp;heavy metals in the extracts. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out using standard methods. Antimicrobial activities of the aqueous, methanol and n-hexane extracts were carried out using agar well diffusion method. The test organisms were laboratory isolates of Salmolella tyhpi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomanas aeruginosa, Aspergellus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albican. Metal concentration of the extracts was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Phytochemical screening showed the presence of the following phytochemicals in the stem-back and root extracts: alkaloid (1.00%, 4.00%), flavonoids (7.00%, 0.60%), saponins (10.00%, 11.00%), cardiac glycosides (2.24%, 3.06%), steroids (2.50%,4.87%), terpenoids (1.80%, 1.26%), and tannins (6.00%,10.00%) respectively. The survey of heavy metal concentration was Zn (12.10 mg/kg), Mn (3.45 mg/kg), Cr (4.55) and Zn (10.80 mg/kg), Mn (2.88 mg/kg) and Cr (4.99 mg/kg) in stem bark and root extracts respectively. Cd, Cu and Pb were not detected in both extracts. This showed that the levels of concentrations of the metals determined were generally below the maximum permissible limits established by International regulatory bodies.&nbsp; All the extracts inhibited growth of the test organisms. The aqueous and ethanol extracts proved more potent than the positive control (tetracycline). The results of ecological risk assessment showed PERI, Cdeg, mCdeg and PLI values of 0.8097, 0.1423, 0.0474 and 0.1222 respectively for the stem bark extract and 0.7015, 0.1332, 0.0444 and 0.1139 respectively for the root extract. Human health risk assessment of the heavy metals gave a total hazard index of 0.0764 and 0.0667 for stem bark and root extracts respectively. These ecological and human health risk assessment results indicated no risk in taking the extracts as alternative medicine.&nbsp; This study therefore has justified ethno-medical use of the plant for the treatment of diseases caused by these pathogens</p> F. C. Orakwue V. N. Okafor F. O. Obumselu J. O. Okoli K. C. Nnamdi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i5.673 KINETIC AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES OF REMOVAL OF 2-NITROPHENOL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING COWPEA HUSK POWDER TETHERED ON IRON OXIDE. http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/676 <p>The uptake of 2-nitrophenol (2NP) from aqueous solution onto cowpea husk powder tethered on iron oxide (CHPI) and pristine cowpea husk powder (CHP) for comparison was investigated under different experimental conditions such as, initial adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, solution pH and temperature using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Adsorption isotherms were described using the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The experimental data fitted into Freundlich isotherm equation, indicating monolayer adsorption of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent. Kinetic evaluations showed that the adsorption mechanism of the iron tethered cowpea husk powder was well described by the Lagergren pseudo-first-order model with rate constant increasing with initial adsorbate concentration and evaluated to be 9.4x10-3 g·mg−1·min−1 for CHPI and 1.67x10-2 g·mg−1·min−1 for CHP respectively; showing the iron tethered cowpea husk powder as a better adsorbent. The evaluations of enthalpy, entropy and free energy changes revealed that the adsorption processes were spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The study revealed that both adsorbents studied behaved considerably well with an added advantage of convenient adsorbent separation with use of the iron tethered cowpea husk powder.</p> A. E. Adeniji F. J. Osundiran O. G. Ayoola A.I. Adeogun A.I. Adeogun M.A. Idowu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.676 HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UMUAHIA, ABIA STATE http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/679 <p>The extent of soil contamination with heavy metals within the vicinity of four solid waste disposal sites in Umuahia were assessed. Four solid waste disposal sites were sampled at depth profiles of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30cm respectively. The soil samples were digested and subjected to heavy metal analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained revealed a wide variation in the concentrations of different heavy metals at various sampling sites. The heavy metal concentrations of soil samples at solid waste disposal sites were higher than those obtained from the control site. Maximum concentrations of Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, Cd and As, were 2.910.02 mg/l, 0.300.00 mg/l, 15.000.02 mg/l, 143.00.15 mg/l, 2.260.31 mg/l, and 0.050.00 mg/l respectively which were obtained from soils with depth profile 0 -10 cm. There was a depth- wise steady decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the soil samples analyzed. However, geo-accumulation (Igeo) index suggested significant contribution of cadmium to soil contamination. Geo-accumulation (Igeo) index of Cd ranged from 1.78 to 4.20, indicating very high contamination of the soil by Cd. But calculated pollution load index (PLI) ranged from 0.10 to 0.45, which does not indicate high pollution load status of the soil.</p> E. C. Ogoko H. I. Kelle C. P. Njoku Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.679 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZEOLITE Y FROM KANKARA CLAY USING ALKALINE FUSION METHOD. http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/682 <p>Zeolite Y was synthesized from Kankara clay, following alkaline fusion method which compared favourably with other conventional method of synthesis to obtain a high yield of zeolite Y. The raw material was hydrothermally activated with NaOH to synthesized zeolite Y. The starting materials for zeolite Y synthesis were prepared in two stages; The first stage was colloidal seed with a composition (5% of Al): 10.67 Na2O: Al2O3:10SiO2:180H2O and the second phase was the preparation of feedstock gel which was done few hours before the ageing time of the colloidal gel elapsed. The method used eliminated a lot of challenges, cost and energy of production using conditions crystallization temperature of 100oC and time of 5 h. This produced zeolite Y with a specific surface area of 686 m2/g, the SEM images demonstrated that the produced zeolites Y possessed agglomerated tetrahedral euhedral morphology. The transformation of the starting material into zeolite Y was evaluated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy to elucidate the crystallization process of zeolites</p> Z. M. Agbendeh C. E. Gimba S. Ande S. F. Ekanem Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.682 MORPHOLIGICAL AND MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES ON THE FORTIFICATION OF STARCH FROM MAIZE WITH ISOLATED AND CHARACTERIZED DEFATTED SOYBEAN GLOBULINS POWDER http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/685 <p>Fortification of indigenous infant weaning meal with protein from leguminous plants such as soybean can actually improve its nutritive value. This study investigates the stability and composition of soy-based formulations with maize starch and determines the nature of intermolecular interaction between the protein and the starch molecules. Dry protein powders were isolated from the legumes and the percentage crude protein was confirmed by proximate analysis. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to visualize the surface morphology of the defatted soybean, starch, dry protein powders and protein–starch composite. Molecular docking was used to investigate the nature of the binding and interaction between the 7S and 11S globulin storage protein in soybean and the Cyclo-Amylose and amylopectin present in starch. The results reveal that the blending of maize starch with the dry protein powders yielded a uniformly mixed protein–starch gel in all proportions with the best binding pose of the amylopectin with the 11S and 7S globulins having binding affinity energies of -11.0 and -10.8 kcalmol-1 respectively, while for the amylose, the binding affinity energies are -3.8 and -3.7 kcalmol-1 for the 11S and 7S globulins respectively. These results indicate higher propensity of amylopectin in the formation of protein–starch complex.</p> U. B. Eke O. K. Yusuff S. K. Degni O. O. Enietan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.685 APPLICATION OF Dalbergiella welwitschii LEAVES EXTRACT IN THE DEMULSIFICATION OF WATER-IN-OIL EMULSIONS http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/688 <p>The application of Dalbergiella welwistchii leaves extract in breaking a crude oil and water Emulsions was studied. n-Hexane, methanol and distilled water extracts of the leaves were prepared using soxhlet extraction method. The extracts were characterized with GC-MS and the components of the extracts show the presence of lupeol, campesterol, methandrostenolone,butylgallate, terpineo, glycylglycine, n-butoxycarbonyl-, pentafluorophenylmethyl ester, taxifolin, 2-Oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-3-one, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, innossitol, p-cymene, (E)-3(10)-Caren-4-ol, 2,4(1H,3H)-Quinazolinedione, 1-methyl-, quercetin 3’-methyl ether, phenol, coumarin, mesitylene, campesterol methyl ether, terpinen-4-ol, bis(2-butyoxyethyl) phthalate, cyclohexane, 1-methyl-2-propyl-, 2-tolyloxirane, (E)-3(10)-Caren-4-ol, sulfurous acid, 2-ethylhexyl nonyl ester, p-cymene, diethyl benzamidomalonate, fumaric acid nonyl trans-hex-3-enyl ester, 1,1'-diacetoxy-4,4'-dichloro- 5,5',8,8'-tetramethoxy -6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-binaphthalene, bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-1-ene,7-exoethenyl-, 1,3-cyclopentadiene,1,2,3,4-tetramethy-5-methylene-, 2,2'-bithienyl, 5,5'-bis(trimethylstanyl)-, α-d-glucofuranosyl benzenesulfonate, benzaldehyde, 2H-benzo[f]oxireno[2,3-E]benzofuran-8(9H)-one,9[[[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl] amino] methyl] octahydro-2,5α-dimethyl-, ethyl iso-allocholate, androstane-11,17-dione, 3-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-, 17-[O-(phenylmethyl)oxime], (3α,5α)-, 1-Isopropoxy-2,2,3-trimethylaziridine (sin) in various percentages in all the extracts. Basic water percentage test of the emulsion shows that the emulsion contained 65.2% water. The various extracts were prepared as demulsifiers and subjected to demulsification test using different concentrations at room temperature for 60 minutes. A synthetic demulsifier was employed for comparison using the total volume of water separated as a yardstick. Results show that n-hexane extract and methanol extract demulsifiers were able to break water-in-oil Emulsions and these were attributed to the phytochemical components of the extracts while the distilled water extract demulsifier was unable to break the emulsion. The commercial demulsifier employed resolved the emulsion with a percentage higher than that of the n-hexane extract and methanol extract formulated demulsifiers. This was attributed to the dehydrating and other chemical components used in preparing the synthetic demulsifier.</p> N. Boisa N. J. Maduelosi A. Ogbuu Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.688 EFFECTS OF USING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER FOR IRRIGATION ON HEAVY METALS IN SOILS AND CROPS: A CASE OF KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/674 <p>Heavy metals can now be considered as natural constituents of the environment, but indiscriminate use for human purposes has altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This study was conducted in Kano metropolis to assess the heavy metals contamination in soils and crops where wastewater is used for irrigation. Soil and crop (Cucumber, Maize, Onion and Spinach) samples were randomly collected from 3 sites, digested and analyzed for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results were compared with the standard guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO) and were used to estimate the health risks of these heavy metals via consumption of the crops. The concentrations of heavy metals found in the soil (4.76 – 52.38 mg/kg, 2.45 – 3.43 mg/kg and 7.65 – 14. 21 mg/kg for Cr, Ni and Pb respectively) were within the acceptable threshold of 100, 50 and 100 (mg/kg) for Cr, Ni and Pb respectively. Cd was recorded in the range of 3.67 to 4.28mg/kg, which is above the acceptable limit of 3.00mg/kg in all the soil samples. The pH values were below the normal range while the Electrical Conductivity (EC) were all above the normal range. For the plant samples, the mean concentrations of the heavy metals studied were above the maximum acceptable threshold recommended by WHO/FAO except Ni. The Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) concentrations of Cd and Cr in all plant samples were above the acceptable tolerable daily intake (PTDI) limit as recommended by European Food and Safety Agency (EFSA). Hazard Quotient (HQ) value of Cd and Pb and the Hazard Index (HI) values for all the samples were greater than 1, which indicates that there is high potential of health risk associated with the consumption of the contaminated crops. The study highlights that irrigation with untreated wastewater is, likely, the major source of heavy metals contamination to the soils and plants examined. It is, therefore, recommended that use of wastewater for irrigation farming should be discouraged.&nbsp;</p> A. Hussaini A. F. Ali B. A. Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i5.674 SEASONAL VARIATION IN TRACE METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL AND VEGETABLE SAMPLES FROM SELECTED MINING AREAS IN JOS SOUTH AND BARKIN LADI LGA, PLATEAU STATE http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/677 <p>In this study, the seasonal variation in concentrations of the trace metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As Ni and Co in soil and vegetable samples from farms in some mining areas in Jos South and Barkin Ladi LGA, Plateau State were investigated in two major seasons (dry and wet). This was done to assess the pollution status of the farms and hence, the safety levels of the vegetable samples. The samples were treated and digested using 10 cm3 HNO3 and 30 cm3 HCl in the ratio of 1:3. Trace metal concentrations were determined using the PG-990 model atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Analytical results of soil samples from mining areas indicated higher concentration of Cu and As for both seasons than the values reported by the FAO/WHO (2007). Similarly, the metals Cu (15.12±1.50 mg/kg), Zn (76.45±2.40 mg/kg), Pb (23.75±1.35 mg/kg), Cd (3.69±0.15 mg/kg), Ni (17.80 ±0.15 mg/kg) and Co (28.14+1.35 mg/kg) showed high concentrations in dry season than wet season. Comparing the vegetable samples, spinach was found to accumulate high concentration of trace metals than tomato and Irish potato. In general, the levels of trace metals in soil and vegetable samples were higher in dry season than in wet season. The levels of Pb, Cd, As, Ni and Co were significantly above the critical toxic level in vegetables as reported by WHO/FAO (2007), while Zn and Cu occurred within the acceptable limit for both seasons.</p> J. R. Gungshik S. J. Salami J. S. Gushit A. E Eseyin M. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.677 EVALUATION OF MOULD AND TOTAL AFLATOXIN CONTENT IN RAW AND PROCESSED GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) PRODUCTS FROM AN EXTENSIVE AGRARIAN STATE IN CENTRAL-NIGERIA. http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/680 <p>Fifty-four samples of groundnut products (including control and purchased) were collected from several locations in Benue State-Nigeria and assessed for total Aflatoxins (TAF) using Direct Competitive Enzymes-linked Immunosorbent Assay method (ELISA). Microbial isolation, identification and estimation was made for all samples. The results implied that TAF were detected in 100 % of the groundnut products. The highest incidence of TAF occurred in the paste (6.30 -10.26 µg/kg) followed by oil (0.53- 8.00 µg/kg) and cake (0.36-3.00 µg/kg). These levels were however below the 20 μg/kg maximum permissible limits (MPL) set by National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) in Nigeria and the 10 μg/kg limit of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). In addition, the results showed a strong positive correlation between the moisture content and the concentration of aflatoxin. Mould count/isolation results identified a total of 305 isolates with Aspergillus flavus having an occurrence of 137 (44.92 %) being the major isolate among others. There was no significant difference in the levels of total aflatoxin between the processed and purchased groundnut samples. The TAF reported in these products are likely to be infiltrated from raw groundnuts from the farm, during storage or handling. This paper is the first in the study area that documents the importance in routine check for aflatoxin content in groundnut products which is vital in reducing chances of aflatoxin poisoning from these products.</p> R. L. Tyohemba K. Asemave U. J. Ahile S. T. Ahundu G. H. Atoo S. T. Ubwa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.680 EXTENDING POULTRY EGGS SHELF LIFE USING ETHNO BOTANICALS IN JOS PLATEAU STATE NIGERIA http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/683 <p>Egg shelf-life extension is vital to minimizing egg waste especially during egg glut. In this research, ethanolic extracts from three ethno botanical plants –Eucalyptus torelliana (ET), Tamarindus indica (TI) and Anarcadium occidentals (AO) were used to coat poultry eggs to extend the egg shelf-life. All eggs both coated and uncoated were stored for ten weeks at an average temperature of 20+2oC and Humidity77+3%. The Haugh unit, weight loss, albumen pH, yolk lipid peroxidation, yolk index and yolk pH were measured every three days to monitor the deterioration of the eggs. Results reveal reduction in weight loss for AO 12%, TI 46% and ET 4%. No statistically significant difference in weight loss as compared to the control was observed for AO an ET coated eggs as p values were 0.9901 and 0.9808 respectively while TI had statistically significant weight loss reduction with p value (0.031); TI also demonstrated potency in maintaining yolk integrity of the eggs and minimized change in pH of egg albumen up to the seventh week of storage. Eggs coated with ET and AO were similar to the uncoated eggs in yolk pH, albumen pH, yolk index and Haugh unit. (TI) also demonstrated potency in minimizing egg yolk lipid peroxidation with lower malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as compared to all groups of eggs.</p> G. O. Agida S.J Salami E. A. Adelakun J. S. Gushit Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 46 6 10.46602/jcsn.v46i6.683