Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-top: 0px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria is a bi-annual publication of original research reports in pure and applied chemistry. Among our regulations include</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">1) Manuscript submitted to this journal is not published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere either in parts or whole. Again the author agrees that the copyright for his article is totally transferred to the Editorial Board of this Journal once the said article is accepted for publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">2) Authors that work for organizations must obtain the written consent of their employer(s) prior to this publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">3) By this agreement, the organization surrenders its copyright to this journal.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">4) No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form without the permission in writing from the copyright holder.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">While the Editorial Board makes every effort to ensure that no misleading information or statement appears in this journal. It is made clear herein that the data and information in the articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Consequently, the Editorial board and their respective staff and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such misleading data and/or information.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">©CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (CSN)</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> <strong style="box-sizing: border-box; font-weight: bolder;">Prof. A.K. Akinlabi</strong></p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> Editor-in-Chief</p> Chemical Society of Nigeria en-US Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 0795-2066 TIME COURSE STUDY OF COMBINED N-ACETYL-P-AMINOPHENOL AND DICLOPHENAC INDUCED-HEPATOTOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WISTAR RATS http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/617 <p>The abuse of combined acetaminophen or N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP) and diclofenac (DIC) due to their analgesics, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties is a predominant cause of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress. This study investigated the time-course effects of APAP, DIC and their combination on biomarkers of hepatic function and oxidative stress in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each as follows; control (distilled water), APAP only, DIC only and APAP + DIC for 4 weeks. Indices of liver damage (serum ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase and bilirubin) were measured. Oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, malondialdehyde; NO, nitric oxide; CAT, Catalase activity; SOD, superoxide dismutase activity; GSH content, reduced glutathione), GR, glutathione reductase, and GST, glutathione-S-transferase) were also determined using spectrophotometric methods. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA with p &lt; 0.05 considered significant. Acetaminophen and diclofenac caused marked liver damage as noted by time-dependent significant (p &lt; 0.05) increased activities of serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, and bilirubin levels as well as significant (p &lt; 0.05) increase in hepatic MDA and NO levels as compared to the control group. Hepatic GSH content, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and GR activities were decreased significantly (p &lt; 0.05) in all acetaminophen and diclofenac-treated groups compared to normal control in a time-dependent manner. These findings suggest that prolonged administration of diclofenac, acetaminophen or their combination may induce hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress and alteration of hepatic antioxidant status in a time-dependent manner.</p> O. A Dosumu D. I. Akinloye O. B. Onunkwor F. C. Thomas R. A. Adeyemo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.617 Schiff Base Modified Chitosan Iron(III) Complex as new Heterogeneous Oxidative Catalyst http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/591 <p>A readily available biopolymeric chitosan has been shown to be a very promising supportive bioligand for the immobilization of catalytic metals. In this study, 3,6-diacetylnaphtalene-2,7-diol cross linked chitosan was used to synthesize Fe(III) complex, which was further used to catalyze the oxidation of methanol using molecular oxygen as oxidant. Both the cross linked polymeric ligand and its complex were characterized using FT-IR, UV-visible and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic methods as well as Scanning Electron Spectroscopy (SEM). Diacetylnaphtalene-2,7-diol cross linked chitosan showed an appreciable shift in O-H and N-H stretches around 3574cm-1 and 3227cm-1 while a new band attributed to imine –C=N stretching vibration appeared at 1614cm-1. The bending vibrations between 1000 cm-1 and 420 cm-1 were also observed for the metal complex indicating possible interactions. The UV-Vis spectrum of the ligand exhibited a distinct absorption peak (335 nm) at the range attributed to imine (C=N) n– * transition, which red shifted in the spectrum of the Fe(III) complex. The SEM micrographs of the polymeric ligand and its Fe(III) complex showed significant morphological differences on the surface, which also suggested metal ligand interaction. Application of this new complex for the catalytic oxidation of methanol yielded formaldehyde, confirmed by comparative study of the FT-IR spectra of synthesized formaldehyde and that of industrially produced formaldehyde. <br><br></p> A. O Adebayo E. O. Ogunbiyi L. O. Adebayo S. Adewuyi L. O. Adebayo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.591 In vitro Antitrypanosomal Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Selected Acacia Plant Species Aqueous Methanol Extract http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/594 <p>Trypanosomiasis has been recognized as a scourge in sub-Saharan Africa for centuries and chemotherapy of the disease still remains unsatisfactory. This study is to explore an alternative source of antitrypanosomal agents from the stem bark of four Acacia species; Acacia nilotica, Acacia sieberiana, Acacia geradii and Acacia hockii. Dried stem bark of each plant was pulverized and extracted with 98% methanol by maceration. Phytochemical screening was carried out followed by in vitro testing of extracts on the motility of Trypanosoma congolense maintained in Ringer solution. Motility assessment of trypanosome was carried out after exposure with varied concentrations of the extracts for 2 hours. Thereafter, infectivity test was carried out using albino mice. Seventy-two mice, divided into twenty-four (24) groups of three animals were each inoculated with 100µl of the mixture containing the varying extract concentrations intraperitoneally. Berenil was used as standard drug control. Establishment of infection and subsequent Parasitaemiawere monitored in the animals for 60 days. The Phytochemical assay revealed the presence of anthraquinones, tannins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and terpenes in all the extracts. Saponin was only present in Acacia nilotica and Acacia geradii. Incubation of parasites with each of the four acacia species recorded cessation in parasite motility which was concentration dependent. The highest concentration 20 mg/ml showed the highest effect within fifteen (15) minutes of incubation which was similar to the Berenil incubated control. However, lower doses (0.005 and 0.00005) mg/ml did not show difference from the non extract incubated negative control. Incubation of T. congolense with Acacia nilotica, Acacia sieberiana, Acacia geradii and Acacia hockii at 20, 10 and 1 mg/ml inhibited the ability of the parasites to establish infection in the albino mice as compared the standard control drug. The results indicate that the methanolic stem extracts of the four acacia species possess antitrypanosomal activity with potentials for the treatment of trypanosomiasis.</p> E. Ogbole E. A Adelakun M. L. Kagoro B. Iliyasu A. O. Salifu O.S Olaolu C Ikyase M. Osuagwu C.D. Nimyel Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.594 Proximate and Acute Toxicity Profile of Vitex doniana (Black Plum) Fruit http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/597 <p>The fresh fruits of Vitex doniana sweet were collected from several randomly selected trees in a farm site in Uromi metropolis, Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state and then processed into an extract in form of syrup. The proximate composition and acute toxicity profile of Vitex doniana sweet fruit were investigated to ascertain its safety and nutritional capability. Analysis of the fruit showed it to be a highly nutritious food containing moisture of about, 9.90%, ash content: 21.5%, fat: 0.75%, fiber: Not detected (ND), protein: 0.006% and carbohydrate: 67.84%. Twenty mice were randomized based on body weight into five groups of four mice each. Three mice in each group were given syrup volumes of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/ml respectively, corresponding to 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg doses. In contrast, mice in the control group received potable water (10 mL/kg). The mice in all the groups were observed closely for mortality, toxicity signs and abnormalities in gross behaviour at 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h, and then daily for 14 days. Based on the model used, the fruit was acutely safe in mice, since no death was observed within 24 hours after oral treatment and on extrapolation gave a high predictive value in humans. The LD50 value of black plum fruit was also found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. Therefore, Vitex doniana fruit should be considered a source of edible syrup bearing in mind the safety, quantity and variety of nutrients it contains.</p> C. Imoisi J.U. Iyasele S.E. Okhale Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.597 ANALYSIS OF PRODUCE WATER FROM EBEDEI FLOW PLANT STATION, DELTA STATE http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/600 <p>Produce water from Ebedei flow station (Delta State) at three points was analysed. Discharged point (A), midstream (B) and downstream (C) were a mile apart. The metal concentration of iron, zinc, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and manganese were carried out using standard methods. Lead levels at discharged point and down stream were higher than World Health Organization (WHO) standard limits. The polynuclear Aromatic hydrocarbon were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total PAHs of sample (A) was 3.63ppm, (B) 52.05 and (C) 59.50 ppm respectively. The pH were within WHO limits of 8.10 and 8.20, conductivity in μs/cm was 20.10 and28.10 within acceptable range. Chloride was between 8, 130.00ppm and 22, 131.53 ppm higher than WHO and effluent discharge limits, while turbidity was between 46ppm-60ppm which was also higher. Hence there is need for holistic monitoring and remediation of produce water in the environment.</p> E. Q. UMUDI K. J. AWATEFE J. IGBORGBOR Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.600 Concentration, Soil-To-Plant Transfer Factor Determination of Heavy Metals in Udu Area of Delta State, Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/603 <p>Heavy metals in varied concentrations are employed in the production of steel of different grades. Silver, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper are of great importance in achieving this. They are part of the main ingredients in the production processes, which in most cases determines steel grades. The location of an integrated steel plant within Udu community of Delta State resulted in the pollution of the soil of the surrounding communities, most of which are involved in farming and fishing activities. This necessitated the transfer of these heavy metals from polluted soils into edible plants. These were mainly as a result of discharges of effluents, smoke and particulates from stack during production into the soils of the surrounding communities and finally into some edible plants; that are consumed by the communities as vegetables. Soil and leaf samples were collected from six different towns or communities in Udu. The towns are Ujevwu, Aladja, Ovwian, Ekete Inland, Orhuwhorun and Otor-Udu; and the heavy metals analysed are Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu and Fe. These samples were digested using USEPA Method 3050B and the heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Results obtained showed the following range for transfer factors (TF) in three different edible plants; which are pumpkin plant (Telfaira occidentalis), bitter leaf plant (Vernonia amygdalina) and scent leaf plant (Occinium gratissimum). The range of values obtained for the transfer factors are- Ag: 4.48–196.45; Cd: 44.52–212.79; Co: 0.03–0.46; Cr: 0.38–3.37; Cu: 21.76–102.95 and Fe: 2.85–14.40. For the six sample sites, generally, the values are in the order: Cd ˃ Ag ˃ Cu ˃ Fe ˃ Cr ˃ Co. Result interpretation shows some level of contamination when compared to recommended standard of these heavy metals in plants. The effect of which can be devastating in the future if not checked.</p> M. A. Balogun M. O. Money-Irubor Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.603 SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF 2-{[(2-HYDROXY-5-METHOXYPHENYL) METHYLIDENE] AMINO} NICOTINIC ACID AND ITS MANGANESE (II) COMPLEXES http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/606 <p>Manganese(II) complexes of 2-{[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl) methylidene]amino} nicotinic acid derived from o-phenylenediamine and 5- nitrosalicaldehyde were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, using IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and GCMS. They were screened against known disease causative microbes to establish their potentials as antimicrobial agents compared with national standards drugs. Results showed that, a Schiff base exhibited antimicrobial action against all the bacteria and most of the fungi with exception of Candidas. albicans isolate, which exhibited zero diameter zone of inhibition. It was also found that the synthesized Schiff base exhibited two digits purity range, implying that it was relatively stable. The metal complex was found to be more susceptible in overall biological activity due to the structural stability, showing their potency in pharmacognocy.</p> I. G. Osigbemhe M. E. Khan A. P. Oviawe M.L Ugheoke Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.606 ANTIBACTERIAL PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPEUTIC STUDIES OF METALLATED PORPHYRIN AGAINST CHRONIC WOUND COLONISING BACTERIAL ISOLATES http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/609 <p>Wound infections have become life threatening as a result of treatment failures caused by multi-drug resistant pathogens. The search for newer compounds potent against antibiotic resistant bacteria associated with wounds is crucial. Hence this study investigated the application of antibacterial photodynamic therapy using meso tetra-(4-phenyl) porphyrin (TPP), metallated with zinc, tin and silver (ZnTPP, SnTPP and AgTPP), meso tetra-(4-sulphonatephenyl) porphyrin (TPPS) and the corresponding metallo meso tetra-(4-sulphonatephenyl) porphyrin (MTPPS) as photosensitizers. The in-vitro toxicity and photo-toxicity properties on four chronic wound colonizing multi-drug resistant bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., and Escherichia coli were assessed using agar well diffusion method. Photo-toxicity of the compounds was investigated using 100 Watt tungsten lamp. Inhibitory activity of porphyrins tested against these bacterial strains showed Staphylococcus aureus to have both lowest (11±0.0 mm) and highest (33±1.1 mm) susceptibility to SnTPPS and ZnTPPS respectively. The sequence of data also showed appreciable improvement in the antimicrobial activities of five metalloporphyrins (SnTPP, AgTPP, ZnTPPS, SnTPPS and AgTPPS) exposed to light rays than when tested against bacterial strains in dark condition. ZnTPPS exhibited the best activity with improved photo-toxic activities against all bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus 33±1.1 mm, Klebsiella sp. 32±0.7 mm, Proteus sp. 28±0.7 mm and Escherichia coli 30±1.4 mm) examined in this study.</p> O. B Daramola A. A Olajide N Torimiro R. C George Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.609 Determination of Physico-chemical properties of selected tropical timbers in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/612 <p>The analyses on chemical properties of some tropical timbers have been studied. The physical properties of these timbers varied in the pH(4.26 – 6.85) , moisture content(13%-37%), specific gravity(0.16-0.45), charring temperature (61 – 116o C)and porosity index(1.17-2.08%).Also the solubility behaviors of these timbers were mostly insoluble in hot and cold water, NaOH and ethanol and slightly soluble in concentrated HCl and H2SO4 respectively. The Qualitative results show heavy presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannis, glycosides, steroids and terpenoids in some of the timbers.Quantitative determinations were carried out and results show that the woods contain chemical constituents which are useful to both humans and industries.</p> G.C NWANISOBI C. EJIKEME EZECHI C. U OKEKE Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.612 CATALYTIC DETOXIFICATION OF AQUEOUS CYANIDE USING COPPER CROWN ELECTROSPUN CHITOSAN NANOFIBER http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/615 <p>Owing to the common phenomenon of cyanide toxicity, this study focused on oxidative catalytic detoxification of aqueous cyanide in the presence of copper-crown chitosan nanofiber. To overcome the difficulty in electrospinning chitosan, chitosan-salicylaldehyde was initially synthesized via Schiff base condensation, electrospun, and post neutralised into chitosan nanofiber. The copper-crown nanofiber was prepared using the impregnation method. The nanofiber material was characterized using FT-IR, SEM, TGA and DSC. The observed pseudo first-order rate constant for the catalytic H2O2 oxidation of aqeous cyanide with copper-crown nanofiber as catalyst was found to be 16 times greater than the oxidation with only copper catalyst. In addition, the reaction was found to be dependent on the size of the copper-crown nanofiber, pH, temperature, and H2O2/CN-. The reusability of the copper-crown nanofiber catalyst makes the process economically and potentially viable for commercial application.</p> N. O. SANYAOLU A. A IBIKUNLE F. A. KAREEM A. O. OGUNMOYE S. A. OGUNDARE O. C. ATEWOLARA-ODULE A. M. HASHIM F. AKINWUNMI S. ADEWUYI T. SHITTU C. O. EROMOSELE N. TORTO Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.615 Acute toxicity tests and dyeing potentials of three azo dyes from Pyocyanin, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa from farmlands http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/618 <p>The admiration for colours by man has made dyes to have very useful applications on a great variety of materials. Pyocyanin (PCN) or 5-methyl-1-hydroxyphenazine, a phenazine derivative biosynthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the stressed soil of a farmland at Awka was used to prepare three azo dyes namely, pyocyanin azophenol, pyocyanin azo-1-naphthol and pyocyanin azo-2-naphthol. The PCN was treated with SOCl2 to convert it to the chloro analogue. Treatment of chloro analogue with NaCN in ethanol and subsequent acid hydrolysis gave the carboxylic acid from which the amide was obtained after treatment with (NH4)2CO3 and heat. The amide was converted to the amine by Hoffman’s amide degradation. The amine was diazotized and coupled with phenol, 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol to give the three azo dyes respectively. UV-VIS and infrared spectra of the compounds agreed with the assigned structures. Acute Toxicity (LD50) tests showed the compounds to be reasonably non-toxic. Dyeing potentials of the Pyocyanin (PCN), PCN azophenol, PCN azo-1-naphthol and PCN azo-2-naphthol by mordant dyeing on cotton, silk and nylon textile materials showed them to have blue, dark green, purplish-brown and red colours respectively. The dyes were reasonably fast to light, washing, rubbing, alkali and acid. Pyocyanin, Pyocyanin azophenol, Pyocyanin azo-1-naphthol and pyocyanin azo-2-naphthol produced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from farmland soil can be used effectively to dye cotton, silk and nylon textile materials.</p> A. C. Nwosu I. O. Okerulu Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.618 Spectrophotometric determination of cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in five selected body creams sold in Benin City, Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/592 <p>The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) were evaluated in five body creams sold in different shopping malls and markets in Benin City metropolis. The samples were classified into bleaching creams, toning creams and moisturizers. The moisture content of each cream sample was determined using standard methods while the heavy content was obtained using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Pb was found to have the highest concentration in bleaching cream 2 (9.70 ppm) and the lowest in moisturizer 1 (1.50 ppm). The concentration range for Cd was from 9.20 ppm in moisturizer 2 to 2.90 ppm in the toning cream. The highest concentration of Ni was found in moisturizer 1 (7.00 ppm) and the lowest was in bleaching cream 2 (1.20 ppm). Cr was not detected in the bleaching and toning creams but it was found to be 26.00ppm in moisturizer 1. The results were compared with international standards and were found to be within the limits set by the cosmetic standards of USA, Canada and WHO. The results from this study has shown that the use of these body creams exposes users to some level of concentration of these toxic metals which could constitute potential health hazard due to their ability to bio-accumulate. Therefore, there should be regular monitoring of heavy metals and other chemicals used in the manufacture of body creams.</p> A. E. Aiwonegbe M. A. Oke Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.592 Bioremediation of Ni2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solution using chemically modified Newbouldia Leavis seed pod. Kinetics and Intraparticle Diffusivities. http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/595 <p>This study investigates the biosorption of Ni2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solution by modified Newbouldia Leavis seed pod. The modification was done by acid treating air-dried activated Newbouldia Leavis seed pod by dissolving it in excess 1.0 M Mercapto acetic acid (HSCH2COOH) solution, stirred for 30 minutes and left to stand for 24 hours at 30 oC, filtered off using WhatmanNo. 41 filter paper and were air dried. The effects of solution pH and contact time were evaluated. The results showed that maximum Cd2+ and Ni2+ adsorption of 7.9872 mg/g and 7.9809 mg/g respectively occurred at pH of 6.0 while that of Pb2+ was 8.0000 mg/g, at a pH of 4.0. The optimum time for maximum adsorption of the three heavy metal ions were 110 min. The kinetic data revealed that the sorption process could best be described by the pseudo – second order kinetic model. The R2 values for the pseudo – second order kinetic plots were unity and were higher than first order reversible model and pseudo – first order plots. Moreover, the values of qcal and qexp obtained for pseudo – second order plots were very close indicating that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetics. However, the transport mechanism for the process involved both intra-particle and liquid film diffusion.</p> O.K. Amadi F.K. Ekuma B. N. Uche Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.595 Characterization and Stability Studies of Egusi Melon Seed Oil (Citrullus colocynthis L.) http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/598 <p>The physical value of oil depends upon its chemical composition, even today these values play a vital role while using different oil for industrial products and also, despite the vast nutritional and medicinal significance of egusi melon, there are little details on the shell life and stability of its oil over time. Therefore, the influence of time and temperature on melon seed oil was investigated at temperatures of 0oC and 30oC at different weeks to ascertain its physicochemical value and storage stability. For week zero, at 0oC and ambient temperature (30oC), the result revealed iodine value 124.09, Acid value 3.64 mgNaOH/g, Free Fatty Acid value 1.84 mgNaOH/g, Saponification 217.35 mgKOH/g, Peroxide value 1.25 mg/g oil, pH 5.89 and thiobarbituric acid value 0.1383 respectively. In the 5th week, at 30oC, the result revealed iodine value 91.1543, acid value 12.8921 mgNaOH/g, free fatty acid value 6.4988 mgNaOH/g, Saponification 346.42 mgKOH/g, Peroxide value 9.5mg/g oil, pH 3.2 and thiobarbituric acid value 0.413 respectively. Also at 0oC in the 5th week, the results were observed as follow: Iodine value 102.53, Acid value 7.96 mgNaOH/g, Free Fatty Acid value 4.01 mgNaOH/g, saponification 287.51 mgKOH/g, Peroxide value 6.1 mg/g oil, pH 5.05, and thiobarbituric acid value 0.2658 respectively. Refrigeration (0oC) of oil reduced the rate of most of the oxidative deterioration that produces rancidity. These values are within recommended range for edible oils. These results indicate that egusi melon oil could be a good source of table oil. The statistical results show that there was a significant difference between the melon seed oil stored at 0oC and 30oC (P &lt; 0.001).</p> C.O. Ajenu M.E. Ukhun C. Imoisi E.E. Imhontu L.E. Irede U.R. Orji Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.598 ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY FROM INDUSTRIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AREAS OF SANGO OTA, NIGERIA http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/601 <p>High concentration of contaminants in drinking water can affect human health. This study assessed quality of groundwater at industrial and residential areas of Sango Ota, Ogun State. Water samples were collected in triplicates from 8 wells at industrial and residential areas and analyzed for its physicochemical properties. The pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid (TDS), nitrate, sulphate, total suspended solid (TSS), total hardness (TH), iron, zinc, copper, lead, nickel, chromium and cadmium concentrations in the water samples were determined following American Public Health Association (APHA) procedure. Results showed that pH of 50 % of the wells were lower than minimum limit of 6.5 recommended by WHO. Sulphate, TH and iron in the water were significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher at residential area than industrial area. Electrical conductivity exhibited significant (p &lt; 0.01) correlation with TDS (r = 0.701**) and NO32- (r = 0.922**) at residential area. At the industrial area however, concentration of salts in water samples was highly associated with SO42- (r = 0.864**) and Cd (r = 0.587**). Across locations of groundwater, iron and lead were above allowable WHO limits in drinking water. Cadmium was also above drinking limit at location T4 of the residential area. Consumers of groundwater in the study area are prone to health related challenges of heavy metal toxicity.</p> O.A. Oguntade V.I. I fesiokwu O. S. Sule Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.601 ADSORPTION STUDIES ON THE REMOVAL OF NAPHTOL-AS DYE USING IRON FILINGS AS ADSORBENT http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/604 <p>This study investigated the potential of iron filings as low cost and environmentally friendly adsorbent for removing Naphthol AS dye from aqueous solutions. The batch-adsorption experiments were performed as a function of pH, temperature, concentration, contact time as well as dynamics of the process. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduskevich isotherm models for the adsorption processes were tested but Freundlich isotherm provided the best description for adsorption of the dye solution onto the iron filings, suggesting a physisorption controlled adsorption. The adsorption process was highly pH-dependent and the result indicates that the optimum pH for adsorption of Naphthol AS onto the adsorbent occurred at 4.0 having a maximum removal efficiency of 88 % respectively. Pseudo first-order and second-order as well as the intra-particle diffusivity kinetic models were applied to the experimental data and results showed that the pseudo second-order provided best fit for the experimental data. Kinetic studies also showed that the adsorption transport mechanism was particle-diffusion controlled.</p> C. M. Ngwu O. K. Amadi M. O. Mac-Kalunta J. Onyeuwaoma Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.604 Studies on some heavy metal contents of ximenia americana and sclerocarya birrea wild fruit from North-Eastern Nigeria. http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/607 <p>Fruits play important role in providing the individuals daily dietary needs from vitamins, iron, and some metals that are needed in the body as dietary supplement or as an important element that form some hormones or enzymes in small concentrations, if exists in high concentrations become toxic with side effects. The presence of heavy metals such as of Fe, Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, and Zn in Ximenia americana and sclerocarya birrea wild fruits were determined using standard methods such as AAS. Results obtained from this study revealed that the concentration of the metals in sclerocarya birrea was Iron, (8.83 ± 0.10) Cadmium (0.01 ± 0.00) Lead (0.04 ± 0.02) Chromium (0.19±0.10) Manganese (4.27 ± 0.20) Nickel (0.21 ±0.10) Cobalt (0.09 ±0.01) and Zinc (2.96 ± 0.02) mg/g. On the other hand, Ximenia americana content was Iron, (6.37 ± 0.10) Cadmium (0.02 ± 0.01) Lead (0.01 ± 0.00) Chromium (0.24±0.01) Manganese (2.50 ± 0.10) Nickel (0.29 ±0.10) Cobalt (0.17 ±0.00) and Zinc (2.31 ± 0.06) mg/g respectively. Highest concentration of Iron was recorded as (8.83 ± 0.10) mg/g in the sclerocarya birrea sample analyzed, while Lead and Cadmium were found to be the least with concentration of (0.01 ±0.00) mg/g in both samples. Their concentrations are within the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) set by FAO/WHO. The findings of this study reveal that there are no health risks associated with the consumption of heavy metals through the intake of these two fruits.</p> G.A Maspalma U.A Maryam M.B. Hamid K.S Hamman S.P Artimas Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.607 Comparative Analysis on the Phytochemical, Proximate and Mineral Composition of the Seeds and Peels of Lime http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/610 <p>Comparative Analysis on the Phytochemical, proximate and mineral composition of the seeds and peels of lime was carried out. The phytochemical, and proximate screenings were carried out using standard methods. The mineral analysis was carried out by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The proximate analysis revealed that the seeds contain Moisture 8.20%, Ash 12.09%,Crude fat 8.50%,Crude Protein 1.93%,Crude fibre 20.71%, and Carbohydrate 48.58% while the peels contain Moisture10.60%, Ash 15.27%, Crude fat14.67%, Crude Protein 2.30%, Crude fibre23.36% and Carbohydrate 33.80%.The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, and volatile oils in both the seeds and peels of the lime. In addition, the seeds contain steroids, while the peels contain tannins, balsams and anthraquinone. The mineral analysis revealed that the seeds contains Ni(0.17mg/100g),Pb(0.01mg/100g),Mn (0.20mg/100g),Zn(0.57mg/100g)Cr(0.17mg/100g),Mg(9.02mg/100g),Ca(27.02mg/100g),Cd(0.01mg/100g), Fe(2.55mg/100g) and Cu(4.81mg/100g) while the peels contain Ni(0.15mg/100g),Pd(0.21mg/100g),Mn(0,21mg/100g),Zn(0.23mg/100g),Cr(0.13mg/100g),Mg(7.61mg/100g),Ca(100.22mg/100g),Cd(0.01mg/100g),Fe(1.67mg/100g) and Cu(0.21mg/100g).The lime seeds and peels can serve as potential sources of drugs and nutrition with the seeds having higher concentration of minerals.&nbsp;</p> D. Uzama S. C. Okolo R. U. Okoh-Esene A. B. Adebiyi A.T. Orishadipe Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.610 GC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM THE EXTRACT OF Hibiscus sabdariffa GROWN IN NORTHERN NIGERIA http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/613 <p>Hibiscus sabdariffa, also known as Roselle belongs to Malvacae family. It is popularly known in Nigeria as Zobo. It has been used traditionally to cure certain ailments like cold, due to its rich pharmacological potential. Hence this study aimed at validating the pharmacological potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa by identification of the compounds present in its leaves using GC-MS technique. The extract was obtained by heating the leaves in ethanol under reflux. The ethanol extract was then subjected to GC-MS analysis. The constituents were identified by comparing their mass fragmentation (MS) pattern with those gathered in the library of NIST-MS and with those reported in literature. The graph obtained from the study revealed the presence of nine (9) organic compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf extract (HSLE) namely cyclohexane carboxylic acid ester, cyclopropane carboxylic acid methyl ester, hexanoic acid-4-octyl ester, hexadeca-2-11-dienoic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, octadecanoic acid, E-13-docosenoic acid and E-11-hexadecanal. Oleic acid has the highest peak value with the retention time of 20.711 which makes it the most abundant fraction and the active ingredient in the HSLE. The presence of some of these bioactive compounds has proved the scientific evidences for the antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties of the plant.</p> G.J. Okore E. E. Oguzie C. E. Ogukwe C. O. Akalezi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.613 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SEEDS AND SEED OIL OF Afraegle paniculata (Rutaceae) http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/616 <p>Afraegle paniculata (Schumach. &amp; Thonn.) Engl. commonly known as Nigerian powder-flask is a plant of rutaceae family found in West Africa from Senegal to Nigeria. The chemical composition of seeds and seed oil of Afraegle paniculata were evaluated in this study. The seed oil was obtained by soxhlet extraction using n-hexane. Chemical composition analyses involved proximate, mineral element, physicochemical and phytochemical. The percentage mean value of the proximate analysis revealed that the seeds contained 28.81±0.02 % crude fat, 25.03±0.12 % crude protein, 10.90±0.03 % moisture, 3.11±0.01 % ash, 25.19±0.02 % crude fibre and 6.96±0.14 % carbohydrate. The mineral element analysis result showed that potassium (114.87 mg/l) was the predominant mineral element followed by magnesium (47.20±0.037 mg/l) and sodium (45.37±0.53 mg/l). Other minerals present were calcium (2.12±0.014 mg/l), iron (1.12±0.028 mg/l), copper (0.41±0.002 mg/l), zinc (0.39±0.094 mg/l) and manganese (0.29±0.005 mg/l). The oil was liquid at room temperature and golden yellow in appearance. The recorded pH, acid, peroxide, iodine, saponification, ester and oil yield values were 3.94, 1.29 mgKOH/g, 17.57 meq/kg, 42.24 mgI2/100g, 203.76 mgKOH/g, 202.47 mgKOH/g, 40.77 % w/w respectively . The presence of alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids and anthraquinone were evident in the phytochemical screening of the seed oil. Nutritional profile of A. paniculata seed could offer a scientific basis for use of the seeds and oils both in human diet and some commercial products. Keywords: Afraegle paniculata, proximate, mineral elements, physicochemical and phytochemical.</p> O. Babatunde G. Ajayi O. O. Ajayi I. A. Ajayi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.616 Isolation and Characterization of Secondary Metabolite from the Stem Bark Extract of Allophylus africanus Beauv (Sapindaceae) http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/619 <p>Isolation of secondary metabolites from the stem bark of <em>Allophylus africanus </em>Beauv (<em>Sapindaceae</em>) was carried out. The plant has a wide distribution in West Africa, with Nigeria (Mambila Plateau, Calabar) inclusive. It has been used in communities for both its medicinal and economic importance. The stem bark of <em>A. africanus </em>was extracted by percolation using chloroform as solvent and concentrated by evaporation at room temperature. Single spot with an Rf value of 0.87 was obtained at a solvent mixture of hexane: chloroform at ratio 2:8 from finger column chromatography . Characterization using spectra analysis which include FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, H-H COSY, H-C COSY, 135 DEPT and mass spectroscopy.&nbsp; Spectroscopic&nbsp; studies&nbsp; of &nbsp;<em>A. Africanus </em>stem bark extract led to the elucidation of the structure of the compound.&nbsp; FT-IR spectrum indicates&nbsp; that the compound is an aromatic derivative. Aromatic protons where seen at the 1H-NMR chemical shift values of 7.25 ppm. Olefinic protons at 5.124, &nbsp;5.146 &nbsp;and &nbsp;6.162 &nbsp;ppm &nbsp;appeared &nbsp;as &nbsp;doublets&nbsp; of &nbsp;doublets &nbsp;of &nbsp;doublets. The &nbsp;compound &nbsp;1-((E)- 7(((1E,5E)-6-((2,3-dimethyl-4-(((E)-3,4,5,6-tetramethyldeca-7,9-dien-2-yl)oxy)pentyl)oxy)-3,4- dimethylhexa-1,5-dien-1-yl)oxy)hept-4-en-1-yl)-4-propylbenzene was isolated.</p> C.G. Kwekowe E.O. Johnbull I.E. Otuokere Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.619 GC-MS Analysis and Antibacterial Effects of Vernonia glaberrima n-Hexane Extracts alone and in Combination with Standard Antibiotics http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/593 <p>The occurrence of drug resistant bacteria warrant investigation on herbal plants for effective antibacterial agents. Vernonia glaberrima leaf (VGL) and stem (VGS) hexane extracts were subjected to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and subsequently evaluated for antibacterial activity alone and in combination each with Sparfloxacin (SPX) and Ciprofloxacin (CPX) on selected bacteria including resistant species. GC-MS analysis revealed fatty acid esters, triterpenoids and aromatic derivatives largely identified as responsible for the broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Both the VGL and VGS demonstrated potent antibacterial activities on P. aeruginosa (29 mm and 27 mm), respectively. However, combination of SPX with VGL potentiated the effects on E. coli and S. typhi by synergistic interaction. Similarly, the efficacy of CFX in combination with VGS on MRSA (30 mm) was significantly enhanced by additive action. It was observed that VGS potentiation of CFX on P. aeruginosa (32 mm) was the most effective antibacterial inhibition recorded in the study. Thus, combination of SPX and CFX each with the extracts has revealed remarkable properties for alternative or complementary therapeutic strategy. Our findings elicit enormous potentials of V. glaberrima hexane extracts as treatment adjuncts for combating drug resistant bacteria. It will be interesting to evaluate in vivo effects of extracts in combination with antibiotics against drug resistant bacteria.</p> P. Gangas A.B. Aliyu A.O. Oyewale Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.593 Synthesis, infra red characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of Schiff bases derived from 1, 3-diphenylprop-2-en-1-one and 1-phenyl-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/596 <p>Chalcones were synthesized via Claisen-Schmidt condensation between various substituted acetophenone and benzaldehyde using 20% cold alcoholic KOH as catalyst. Two Schiff bases were synthesized through the condensation reaction of the synthesized chalcones with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine using concentrated H2SO4 as catalyst. The antimicrobial properties of the Schiff bases were determined using the standard disc diffusion method of anti-microbial sensitivity according to CLSI. The results of anti-microbial analysis were compared to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin as reference standards. The first Schiff base was N-(2,4-Dinitro-phenyl)-N'-(1,3-diphenyl-allylidene)-hydrazine (SB1), a hydrazone of 1,3-diphenylprop-2-en-1-one and the second was N-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1-phenyl-allylidene]-N'-(2,4-dinitro-phenyl)-hydrazine (SB2), a hydrazone of 1-phenyl-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-prop-2-en-1-one. SB1 had a percentage yield of 97.57% and a decomposition temperature of 231-2340C while SB2 gave 98.74% as percentage yield and a melting point of 216-2180C. SB1 showed anti-microbial properties while SB2 showed no anti-microbial properties when both were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration of 10 mg/mL. SB1 had a diameter zone of inhibition of 4-6 mm for P. aeruginosa and 7-9 mm for S. aureus. SB1 was more effective against g positive than g negative bacteria at a concentration of 10 mg/L. The presence of the major absorption band in the range of 350-375 nm, attributable to the n-π* transition of aromatic ketones in the UV spectra of the synthesized chalcones gave credence to their proposed aromatic structure. The presence of strong bands at 1604 cm-1 for SB1 and 1601cm-1 for SB2 and the absence of carbonyl oxygen absorption band in their IR spectra gave credence to the formation of Schiff bases.</p> A. E. Aiwonegbe C. O. Usifoh Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.596 Molecular docking studies of inhibitory activities of Phytochemicals in Calotropis procera against α-glucosidase hydrolase Sus B. http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/599 <p>The use of synthetic drugs is associated with various side effects and it is important to look for other drugs from medicinal plants. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the inhibitory activities of Calotropis procera leaf against α-glucosidase hydrolase Sus B and it‟s possible mode of inhibiting this enzyme through molecular docking studies. From the molecular docking analysis, the results shows that out of the thirty six (36) screened phytochemicals, only twenty six (26) fall between the recommended hit value of inhibition constant of (0.1-1.0 µM) where their inhibition constant range from (0.01-0.59 µM) after docking with target receptor α-glucosidase hydrolase SusB (PDB ID: 2ZQ0) using Pyrx-vitual screening tools (Autodock tool, Autodock vina and Open babel).Visualizing was done using Pymol and Biosvia discovery studio(2019). Considering the other analysis done, Drug likeness of Lipinski rule of five, only six(6): Hesperidine (3),Calotroposide (3),Calotropin (3),Ascleposide (4),Proceroside (4) and Voruschairin (3) out of the potent twenty six (26) contravene more than 2 of the Lipinski rules of five, therefore other twenty (20) compounds can be considered for processing into potent drugs.</p> O. O. Adeboye S. A. Agboluaje O. F. Akinyele Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.599 Chemical Speciation and Mobility Factors of Heavy Metals in Soil Around an Integrated Steel Complex Communities http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/602 <p>Some heavy metals, consisting of Fe, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined using USEPA Method 3050B for total metal concentration. Six composite samples were located from Aladja (ALJ), Ovwian (OVW), Ejevwu (EJW), Ekete Inland (EKI}, Orhuwhorun (ORH), and Otor-Udu (OTU) towns. In addition, chemical speciation was carried out on these samples using method employed by Tessier et al. as modified by Kersten and Forstner to assess their speciation pattern and the fraction of abundance as determinant of environmental pollution. From the results obtained, concentrations of Fe, Cd and Mn were more predominant in the residual fraction (F5) in the form of Fe3+, Cd2+ Mn2+ respectively for both wet and dry seasons. Co was more in the exchangeable fraction (F1) as Co2+ for both seasons. Concentration of Cu in the form of Cu2+ is higher in Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3) for wet season and dry season’s organic fraction (F4). Pb and Zn were abundant in Fe-Mn oxide fraction (F3) for both seasons as divalent ions. Mobility factor calculated for the metals shows pattern in the order: Pb &gt; Co &gt; Zn &gt; Mn &gt; Fe &gt; Cd &gt; Cu &gt; Ni for wet season and Co &gt; Zn &gt; Mn &gt; Cu &gt; Pb &gt; Ni &gt; Cd &gt; Fe for dry season; which is as a result of changes in some physiochemical parameters such as acidity, pH, among others. From this result, there is the need to ensure that future health catastrophe is averted from the accumulation and release of Pb2+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+ especially into the environment.</p> M. A. Balogun S. H. O. Egboh M. O. Money-Irubor Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.602 Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Phthalide Composition of Celery oil from Apium graveolens L. cultivated in Nigeria. http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/605 <p>Phthalides are important bioactive constituents of celery plants. The medicinal uses of celery and their characteristic aroma have been linked to the phthalides. In this report, the leaf and stalk oils of celery were extracted either by hydrodistillation or maceration in water and the phthalide constituents of the oils were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The leaf oil consists mainly of dihydroxyphthalides while the volatile phthalides are the main phthalides in the stalk oil. The phthalide content of the leaf oil and the stalk oil are 39.8% and 29.95% respectively. The phthalides identified in the leaf oil are the isomeric compounds of senkyunolide I and senkyunolides (J &amp; N), while the major phthalide constituents of the stalk oil include 3-n- butylphthalide, sedanolide, neocnidilide and sedanenolide/senkyunolide A. The results suggest that the Nigerian celery plant could be considered a good source of phthalides which are known for their nutraceutical properties such as anti-oxidant, antitumor, anti- platelet aggregation, hypotensive, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. Further phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of the locally cultivated celery are required in order to exploit the medicinal potentials of the plant for applications in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.</p> E. A. Adelakun C. Achuenu E. C. Ngurukwem D. J. Chuwang Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-03-30 2021-03-30 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.605 ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED HEAVY METALS AND ESTIMATION OF HUMAN HEALTH RISK IN SOME COMMONLY CONSUMED FISH IN ABEOKUTA, OGUN - STATE, NIGERIA http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/608 <p>Fish is a major source of food in many parts of the world because they contribute to solving the global food problem and provide the well-known proteins, minerals, vitamin and trace elements content. Concentrations of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in various parts of the fish (liver, gill, bone and muscle) of Mackerel (Scomber scombrus), Sardine (Sardinella longiceps), Hake (Merluccius merluccius) and Express (Platax scalaris) which were purchased from two major markets in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Heavy metal levels in the fish samples were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS Buck 211). Health risks related to Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd were assessed based on target hazard quotient (THQ). Results obtained showed variations in the levels of heavy metals across the various tissues in the fish samples. The concentration of Fe was highest in all the tissues in the fish samples with the gill recording the highest level. There were higher concentrations of heavy metals in the gills than in other tissues of the fish samples. The trend of heavy metal levels in the tissues was found to be Fe &gt; Zn &gt; Cu &gt; Ni &gt; Pb &gt; Cd. Highest levels of Pb and Cd in the muscle were 1.92 ± 0.04 and 0.64 ± 0.04 mg/kg in Merlucciusmerloccius and Scomberscombrus respectively. The concentrations of Pb and Cd were higher in the muscles of all the samples than European Community and Food and Agriculture Organization maximum permissible levels. The health risks from Ni and Pb were found highest among all the heavy metals in the fish samples. THQ values of Cu and Cd in Sardinellalongiceps and Cu in Merlucciusmerloccius were higher than 1. Health risk assessment of Ni and Pb in all the fish studied and Cd in Sardinellalongiceps indicates that their consumption may be unsafe.</p> T. F. Akinhanmi F. Akinwunmi O. O. Ajala E. E. Usanga Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.608 Rationalization of the effects of hydrogen bond donor solvent and nucleofugicity of fluoride ion on nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions in non-polar aprotic solvent: reaction of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene with cyclohexylamine in toluene and toluene http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/611 <p>The kinetics of the reaction of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene with cyclohexylamine were studied at different concentrations in toluene and toluene-alkanol mixtures. The reaction was not base-catalysed in toluene. Addition of small amounts of hydrogen-bond donor solvent, alkanol (ranging from methanol to hexanol) to the toluene medium of the reactions produced a different effect in comparison to uncatalysed reactions — slight increase in rate of reaction. The results are rationalized in terms of the effect of amine-solvent interaction on the nucleophilicity of the amine in addition to some other factors operating through cyclic transition states leading to products. It is also attributed to the peculiar nature of fluoride ion as a leaving group.</p> A. D. Adesina I. A Babatunde Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.611 Study of the Crude oil Properties of Oily seepages found in South Eastern Nigeria. http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/614 <p>ASTM D-270 method was applied in obtaining well-head crude oil samples from Awoba 8T (Rivers State), Odidi 23L, and Odidi 46S (Delta State), Eremor 1L (Bayelsa State) and Oily Seepage samples from Ugwueme (Enugu State) and Anam (Anambra State). The0API gravity value of all the samples were 16.190 and 21.470 for Ugwueme seepage and Eremorcrude respectively, 22.470 for Odidi 46s crudeand 44.700, 43.840 and 34.760 for Anam seepage, Awoba 8t and Odidi 23L crudesrespectively, indicating heavy, medium and light crude oils respectively. All the well-head crudes and oily seepage samples studied in this work are onshore samples except Odidi 46s which is an offshore crude sample. The samples were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction using a mixture of n-hexane and dichloromethane (3:1). The extracted fractions were analyzed using GC-FID. The result of the analyses gave polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations (mg/kg) of 7106.43 for Awoba 8T crude, 6767.41 for Odidi 23L crude, 5771.20 for Odidi 46S crude, 5191.21 for Eremor crude, 4908.04 for Ugwueme Seepage and 6983.16 for Anam seepage. The predominance of low molecular weight PAHs (LMWPs) over the high molecular weight PAHs (HMWPs) indicate that both the crude oil samples and the oily seepage samples were of Petrogenic Source. However, various ratios were obtained to identify the possible source of PAHs in the crude oil and seepage samples. Mixed sources of pyrogenic and petrogenic PAHs were also discovered with evidence of „pyrolytic‟ input which may suggest some geothermal-mediated processes.</p> C. A. Nwadinigwe P. O. Ukoha I. V. Anigbogu T. N. Alumona Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 46 2 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.614