Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-top: 0px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria is a bi-annual publication of original research reports in pure and applied chemistry. Among our regulations include</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">1) Manuscript submitted to this journal is not published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere either in parts or whole. Again the author agrees that the copyright for his article is totally transferred to the Editorial Board of this Journal once the said article is accepted for publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">2) Authors that work for organizations must obtain the written consent of their employer(s) prior to this publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">3) By this agreement, the organization surrenders its copyright to this journal.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">4) No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form without the permission in writing from the copyright holder.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">While the Editorial Board makes every effort to ensure that no misleading information or statement appears in this journal. It is made clear herein that the data and information in the articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Consequently, the Editorial board and their respective staff and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such misleading data and/or information.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">©CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (CSN)</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> <strong style="box-sizing: border-box; font-weight: bolder;">Prof. A.K. Akinlabi</strong></p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> Editor-in-Chief</p> Chemical Society of Nigeria en-US Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 0795-2066 Comparative Physicochemical and Proximate Analyses of Different Extracts of Persea americana http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/539 <p>Avocado and Avocado oil are high in monosaturated oleic acid, a heart-healthy fatty acid that is believed to be one of the main reasons for the health benefits of olive oil. This study, was therefore carried out to determine the physicochemical and proximate composition of the seed and rind of avocado pear with the extraction and characterization of oil obtained from the seed and rind using solvent extraction. The phytochemical screening was also carried out on the seed and rind of avocado pear oil. The moisture contents were (51.05% and 71.77%) for the seed and rind respectively. The ash content of the unripe seed and rind were (0.52% and 0.55%) respectively. The fat (lipid) content in both the unripe seed and rind oil were (21.41g and 9.53 g) respectively. The unripe rind sample was richer in protein (6.4%) and unripe seed being lower (3.04%) to the rind. The crude fibre content for the seed and rind oil were (51.2 g and 2.54 g) respectively. Saponification value of the oil from unripe seed had a higher value of 258.82 mg KOH/g and for unripe rind was 203.47 mg KOH/g. The peroxide value for oil obtained from both unripe seed and rind of Persea americana were 0.91 mg/kg and 0.33 mg/kg respectively. Acid value was low in the unripe seed with a mean value of 0.057 mg KOH/g. It was observed that the Acid value for unripe rind was 0.058 mg KOH/g. The iodine value for rind was 182.85 (gI2/100 g), the seed oil contains 53.78 (gI2/100 g) of iodine. The refractive index was 1.21 and 1.35 for the unripe seed and rind oil respectively. The pH of the various avocado pear extracts also showed their slightly acidic nature.</p> C. Imoisi U.C. Michael Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.539 Investigation of Wound Healing Potential of Azadirachta indica Seed Extract using Wistar Rats http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/542 <p>This study investigated the wound healing potential of hexane and methanolic seed extracts of Azadirachta indica using 35 wistar rats that were divided into 5 groups of 7 rats each. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of the extracts were carried out while the wound healing potential was evaluated by treating the test rats with 5 % and 10 % hexane and methanol extracts in an experiment that lasted for 21 days. Wound area and percentage of wound closure of the rats were noted at four-day intervals and at 21 days, the blood and organs of the rats were subjected to haematological and histopathological analyses respectively. The extracts were found to contain tannins, glycosides and phenols and they inhibited the growth of tested organisms. All the test rats displayed better and faster healing than the control ones but there were no significant differences between their haematological and histophatological results. The seed extracts quickened the wound healing process of the rats and might therefore be useful in wound treatment.</p> I. A. Ajayi O. B. Omolere Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.542 ASSESSMENT OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND TOXICITY OF POLY CYCYLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (PAH) IN AMBIENT AIR OF EGBEMA COMMUNITIES, IMO STATE. http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/546 <p>Mosses plants (pleurozium schreberi) was used to trap Poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in ambient air of oil producing areas of Egbema, where the distribution and assessment of pollution in ambient air from six locations where harvested for Six months (Dry Season). Gas chromatography was used to analyze the samples where the mean average of PAH recorded Pyrene with highest concentrations of 0.146(µg/kg) followed by Fluoranthane with 0.051(µg/kg) and their locations were recorded highest at AQOWH, AQEOJ with 2.86(µg/kg) followed by AQEWH and AQEWFS with 1.73(µg/kg) and 1.87(µg/kg) respectively. AQEOJ and AQOWH have largest variation spread of PAH in all locations, while Fluorathene recorded highest variation spread in all Locations. It is also noted that not only oil exploration generates PAH spread in Egbema, there are other vices that also contribute to daily exposures PAH which is associated with increased incidences of premature death, chronic asthma and as well as respiratory problems in children.</p> G. C. Anyanwu A. J. Chinweub S. Uzoekwe C. A. Odilora Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.546 VARIETAL DIFFERENCES IN NIGERIA MAIZE GRAIN http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/549 <p>Eight different improved varieties of maize grain from IITA, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria and a local maize from Bodija market, Ibadan were examined for their varietal differences. Proximate analysis of the improved varieties of the maize grain and the local maize were carried out. Elemental analysis of the improved varieties of the maize and the local maize were also carried out by using spectrophotometry method. The moisture content of the improved varieties of the maize ranged from 7.75-10.05% and the local maize was 9.25%. The ash content of the improved varieties maize varied from 1.45%-3.47% while the local maize gave 2.22%. The protein, oil, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents of the improved maize varieties ranged from 9.35-11.15%, 3.50%-8.42%, 1.40%-3.55% and 65.35%-73.82% respectively. Similarly, the local maize variety gave 9.40%, 4.25%, 1.55% and 73.55% for the protein, oil, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents respectively. The improved maize varieties gave higher results for protein, crude fiber and oil contents than the local maize variety. The elemental analysis showed that the sodium element in the improved varieties of the maize was found between 85.01-165.11 mg/100g while the local maize was 110.21 mg/100g. The magnesium, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc in the improved varieties of the maize were in the range of 27.51-35.54 mg/100g, 250,05-307.56 mg/100g, 1.49-1.64 mg/100g, 0.51-1.38 mg/100g, 2.52-7.59 mg/100g, 1.49-2.75 mg/100g and 4.25-11.03 mg/100g respectively except the ACR-85TZSR-Y-1 of the improved variety in which manganese was not detected while the mineral elements in the local maize were obtained as 110.21, 35.01, 247.52, 1.47, 0.63, 4.52, 2.75, 7.04 respectively. Most of the improved varieties showed higher values of the mineral elements than the local variety except sodium, manganese and copper where lower values were observed</p> J.A. AREMU F. OLADOYINBO L.M. DUROSINMI E.O. DARE A.K. AKINLABI Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.549 INVESTIGATION IN THE USE OF COWPEA CHAFF AS AN ADDITIVE FOR NATURAL RUBBER. http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/552 <p>Natural rubber is a gummy liquid obtained from the sap fluid of the tree Hevea brasilensis. It is a natural hydrocarbon polymer of 2-methyl-1-3-butadiene (isoprene), which contains one double bond per repeating unit, whose structural arrangement typifies that of a cis-isomer (cis-polyisoprene). Natural rubber in its raw gum state is tacky, fairly elastic but suffers some limitations such as poor resistance to weathering condition, low tensile strength and hence additives are always added to improve on the limitations of the natural Rubber. Most additives are imported hence constituting additional cost. Cowpea chaff was used in this study as one of the additives. The cowpea chaff was chosen for this research due to its availability and cost since it is a waste material and expected to reduce cost of production. The cowpea chaff was grinded and sieved to fine particles (powder) using 100µm. The cowpea chaff powder was divided into portions and part were modified via nitration. The modified and unmodified cowpea chaff powder were characterized to determine the Ash content, Moisture content, Volatile content, pH, Loss on ignition, X-ray florescence (XRF) analysis was carried out to ascertain the elemental composition and Infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) to determine the functional groups and extent of the reaction of the samples. Each of the portions were compounded with Natural Rubber (NR) using calcium carbonate as control. The physico-mechanical properties of the vulcanizates obtained were determined. The study showed that chemically modified and unmodified cowpea chaff powders were good additives (softeners). Based on the parameters tested, it can be concluded that cowpea chaff can be substituted with CaCO3 filler in NR vulcanizates.</p> A. K. Akinlabi S. B. Akinfenwa T. D. Idowu N. R. Laleye F. Akinwunmi A. M Mosaku A. Falomo G. Oladipo S. O. Oni F. Y Falope N. Y Ilesanmi T. O. Aborode Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.552 DETERMINATION OF Bisphenol A RELEASED FROM POLYCARBONATE INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES BY UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRY http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/555 <p>Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic organic compound used as a raw material for the production of polycarbonate plastics, which are widely used in infant feeding bottles, kitchen utensils and other food packaging materials. The migration of bisphenol A from polycarbonate feeding bottles into water and milk samples was investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometry based on diazotization-coupling reaction. The proposed method involves diazotization of 4-aminobenzenesulphonic acid under acidic condition in the presence of sodium nitrite at low temperature, followed by its coupling with Bisphenol A, in alkaline medium to produce yellow color azo-dye. The diazo–coupling reagents and time were optimized, the azo-dye formed has absorption maximum at 439nm. BPA was detected within the range of 0.37 – 5.93 µg/mL in the samples using standard addition method. The validation parameters were LOD: 0.48 µg/mL, LOQ: 1.62 µg/mL, while recovery for spiked samples were averagely 97.87 – 99.63 % and %RSD ranged between 0.12- 4.9%. Milk samples have exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for BPA of 50μg/kgbw/day recommended by EFSA.</p> A. B. Bashir A. A. Audu Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.555 Extraction of Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol from the leaves of Acanthus montanus and their contractile activity on uterine muscles of non-pregnant female albino rats http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/560 <p>Acanthus montanus is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family Acanthaceae. It is a plant with several phytoconstituents which accounts for its tradopharmacological uses such as treatment of pain, female infertility and spontaneous abortion with dosage schedule depending on the ailment. The present study was aimed at identifying and characterizing some of the active principles from leaves of the plant. Keywords: Acanthus montanus; Stigmasterol; β-sitosterol; contractile activity; uterine contraction; non-pregnant rat.</p> E. M. Jonathan F. E. Okieimen Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.560 ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY OF 1,4-AND 1,2-BENZENE DICARBOXYL ESTERS FROM DEINBOLLIA PINNATA LEAVES http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/563 <p>The family Sapindaceae are tropical and sub-tropical continental plants. In this study, 1,4-Benzene dicarboxyl ester (1) and 1,2-Benzene dicarboxyl ester (2) from methanolic extracts of Deinbollia pinnata leaves. The successful separation of the isomeric mixture is by freezing the sub-fraction with methanol for seventy-two hours; followed by filtration, isolation and purification. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically (1H &amp;13C NMR, FTIR and GC-MS). The methanolic extracts showed good DPPH scavenging activity with percentage inhibition greater than 70% at 125 ppm, an excellent antioxidant activity towards ABTS assay with the IC50 value of 13.68 µg/mL and also exhibits most potent ferric ion reducer at 3.45 ± 1.30 mM FRAP equivalent compared to other extracts. The 1,4-Benzene dicarboxyl ester (1) displayed high antioxidant radical scavenging activity towards DPPH assay with IC50 value of (IC50 32.99; 73.491%) and 1,2-Benzene dicarboxyl ester (2) at (IC50 33.99; 71.11%);ABTS activity with SC50 value at 48.81µg/mL; 87.98% (1) and 49.55µg/mL; 83.85% (2) and a good potential as ferric ion reducer ranging from 0.05±0.00 to 1.37±0.02 (1) and 0.16±0.04 to 1.29±0.03 (2) mM FRAP equivalent respectively. <br><br></p> Y. Rufai N. Basar S. Chandren K. Suleiman I. Yinusa Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.563 Pasting Properties of Composite of Cassava and Wheat Flours http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/540 <p>Classification of cassava and wheat using only amylose content is not sufficient enough to predict starch viscosity for end product recommendation, hence this study aimed at characterizing and categorizing the pasting profile of composite flours from cassava-citrus and wheat-watermelon using Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) (used in confectionary products), dried cassava, citrus rind, wheat grain and watermelon rind were processed into flour by grinding. Cassava-citrus and wheat-watermelon flours were blended in the ratio of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 and labeled as AB1, AB2, AB3, AB4 and BC1, BC2, BC3, BC4 respectively. The data obtained from the pasting properties of composite cassava-citrus and wheat-watermelon flours are as follows: range of peak viscosity (249.6-446.0) and (97.1-116.3) RVU, trough value (158.5-251.5) and (59.5- 70.3) RVU, breakdown viscosity (91.1-184.1) and (37.6-46.0) RVU, final viscosity (222.3-509.3) and (184.4-214.2) RVU, setback viscosity (63.3-247.8) and (124.9-143.8) RVU, peak time (4.27-5.27) and (5.53- 5.67) min and pasting temperatures (72.45-73.40) and (90.40-91.25) oC. The pasting properties of wheat watermelon composite flours increased with increasing substitution of watermelon fibre while those of cassava citrus composite flours decreased with increasing substitution of citrus fibre until 50% replacement. Composite Cassava-citrus flour AB3 and wheat-watermelon flour BC1 respectively had the highest value for all the pasting properties evaluated. Hence, cassava-citrus flour AB3 with 50% citrus substitution and wheat-watermelon flour BC1 without any substitution could find applications in confectionery and pastry industries. Thus, the results also indicated that by incorporating citrus and watermelon fibre, it is possible to enhance the pasting properties of our local cassava and wheat flour. This will also serve as a way of converting wastes from citrus (citrus vesicles) and Watermelon rinds (Citrullus larnatus) into useful materials, thereby reducing environmental pollutions caused by these wastes.</p> C. Imoisi J.U. Iyasele E.E. Imhontu D.O. Ikpahwore A.O. Okpebho Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.540 Isolation and Analysis of Methanol Extract of Leaf of Senna siamea http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/544 <p>This study aimed at isolation and characterization of biochemical constituents of the leaf extract of Senna siamea. The fresh leaves of Senna siamea were air-dried, pulverized and extracted using methanol by maceration method. The extract was screened for phytochemicals using standard methods. Fifty grammas (50 g) of the crude extract was defatted using n-hexane; 20 g was subjected to column chromatographic (CC) analysis using ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions with similar retardation factor (Rf) were pooled and coded. Subsequently purification of fraction SSM5 was carried out using CC with solvent [Toluene and n-butanol (4:1) as mobile phase]. The collection was based on colour bands) and TLC was carried out where a sub-fraction SSM54 amongst other fractions gave a single spot on TLC and the Rf value was 0.71. It was then subjected to UV, IR and GC-MS analysis. The extract by maceration yielded 12.60% w/w and the defatted extract yielded 10.0% w/w. The result of the UV-visible gave a wavelength of 289 nm and an absorbance of 4.268. The result of infrared spectroscopy revealed functional groups thus O-H, N-H, C-H stretching group at 3385.8 cm-1, -CHO at 2955.8 cm-1, -CHO stretching at 2926.0 cm-1,-NH3+ at 1640.0 cm-1, carboxylate ion–CO2- for amino acid at 1449.9cm-1, -N=N- at 1401.5 cm-1, -N+O-=N- at 1315.8 cm-, C-O-C at 1189 cm-1, Si-O at 1084 cm-1 and S=O at 1013.8. The GC-MS analysis of SSM54 revealed the presence of Diisoctyl phthalate, Purine-2,6-dione, 8-(3-Ethoxypropylamino)-1,3-dimethyl-3, 9-dihydro-, a-Pinene, 10-(dimethylaminomethyl), 1H-indene-2-ethanamine, N, N- dimethyl-3-[1-(2-pyrindinyl) ethyl] -, Benzene, 1, 2- bis(2,5 dimethylphenylaminomethyl)-3,6- dimethyl- and Cinnamic acid, p-(trimethylsiloxy)-, methyl ester were among the probable bioactive compounds.&nbsp;</p> V. M. Balami J. Yakubu J. Yakubu U. T. Mamza S. I. Dawa S. I. Dawa F. I. Abdulrahman O. A. Sodipo Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.544 PREPARATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM TEAK LEAVES FOR THE DECOLORIZATION OF PALM OIL http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/547 <p>The bleaching efficiency of activated carbon prepared from teak leaves was investigated for the removal of pigments from palm oil. The adsorbents were activated using KOH and FeCl3 as activating agents. The effects of adsorbent dosage (2% - 6 %), contact time (15 min. – 90 min.) and temperature (30 °C – 80 °C) were studied, while the unactivated adsorbent was used as standard. The ash content, moisture content, volatile matter content, and fixed carbon content were determined and the adsorptive bleaching of palm oil investigated using 1.2 g activated carbon with 20 g crude palm oil. Bleaching efficiency was observed to be 93.09 % and 96.68 % for the KOH and FeCl3 activated adsorbent respectively, while the unactivated adsorbent was observed to have a bleaching efficiency of 89.21 %. The optimum bleaching efficiency was observed at a temperature of 70 °C, adsorbent dosage of 6 %, and contact time of 90 min. Results obtained suggests that teak leaves can be a source of low-cost adsorbent for the removal of pigments from palm oil which is of great relevance in obtaining a clean environment.</p> E. I. Ofulue F. A. Adekola V. O Adimula Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.547 Optimized Sorption of Methyl Orange using Functionalized Carob Plant Pod http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/550 <p>One of the most problematic groups of water pollutants is dye, a main constituent of textile industrial wastewater, which is carcinogenic. Therefore, this research delved into adsorption of dyes from textiles and wastewater using acid-treated as an adsorbent. The adsorbent was prepared by functionalizing the pod of carob with concentrated H3PO4. The effects of operational parameters such as adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial concentration of dye and temperature were studied and optimized using central composite design of design of experiment (DOE). The effects of process parameters (contact time, concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature) on the dye adsorption were determined and optimized. It was observed that the colour removal efficiency increased with an increase in adsorbent mass and contact time. The adsorption process is endothermic as the percentage removal increases with temperature. The optimum contact time, concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature were found to be 60oC, 9.74hr, 10ppm, and 5g respectively for the maximum decolorization.</p> K. A. ABDULSALAM B. H. Amodu O. K. Fakorede J. M. Adelowo A. P. Onifade F.C. Olowosaga O.D. Omikunle B. Akintayo Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.550 THE USE OF MODIFIED SUGARCANE BAGASSE IN NATURAL RUBBER COMPOUNDING http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/553 <p>Natural rubber (NR) is a renewable agricultural resource which has gained fast technological innovation due to some inherent properties and its renewability. Compounding of natural rubber with modified and unmodified nano-sized agricultural waste is of interest because it is economical, environmentally friendly, cheap and readily available, hence, the trial of sugarcane bagasse as an additive in Natural Rubber compounding. The sugarcane bagasse was sourced locally, milled to fine powder and sieved to &lt;100µm in size. Characterization of Natural rubber latex viz-a-viz: Dry rubber content (DRC), Total solid content (TSC), Ash content, Moisture content were carried out. The Sugarcane bagasse was modified via Hydroxylation using 10% Sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The modified sugarcane baggase (MSB) and unmodified sugarcane baggase (USB) were characterized viz-a-viz: their pH, moisture content, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and micro-pixe analysis. The extent of modification was determined via titration. The NR was thereafter compounded with USB, MSB, CB, admix of MSB with CB and admix of USB with CB to give five vulcanizates, labeled A – E ( A- 40 parts CB, B- 40 parts USB, C- 40 parts MSB, D- 20 CB : 20 USB while E was 20 CB : 20 MSB). The vulcanizates were then subjected to physico-mechanical tests viz-a-viz: Tensile strength, Modulus Elasticity, Hardness, Elongation @ break and Yield elongation. The result revealed that mix A (control) with 40 CB has the highest Tensile strength compared to the other mixes, which was followed by mixes E &gt;D &gt;C while B gave the least tensile strength, showing that carbon black acted better than modified sugarcane bagasse and better than unmodified sugarcane bagasse. Compatibility of the unmodified and hydroxylated sugarcane bagasse with natural rubber and carbon black was also established. The extent of the solubility of the mixes in ethanol, kerosene and petrol were investigated to determine the extent of crosslinking and mix A was very resistant to all the solvents followed by mixes C then E then D while mix B dissolves readily.</p> A.K. Akinlabi R.N. Laleye S. B. Akinfenwa A.M Mosaku A. A. Falomo G. Oladipo S.O Oni F. Y Falope N. Y Ilesanmi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.553 Lipid Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Raw, Boiled and Fermented Seed Extracts of Pentaclethra macrophylla (BENTH) http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/556 <p>Lipids possess versatile biological properties in human health and nutrition. The compositions of lipids were investigated on the raw, boiled and fermented seeds of Pentaclethra macrophylla n-hexane extracts. The seed extracts were esterified, and chemical composition of the fatty acids was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Subsequent chromatographic purification and isolation on the lipids was carried out using column chromatography and thin layer chromatographic techniques. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was evaluated using disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques on selected bacterial and fungal species, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenterea, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Escherichia coli, Candida krusei, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. GC-MS analysis revealed that fatty acids such as linoleic acid, butyl 9,12- octadecadienoate acid, oleic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl 20-methyl heneicosanoate, tetracosanoate acid, ethyl tetracosanoate and methyl stearate were common in the raw, boiled and fermented seed extracts. However, linoleic acid content was higher (60%) in fermented seeds, indicating an increased production due to fermentation effect. The extracts have demonstrated growth inhibition on bacterial and fungal species with broad-spectrum activity for the fermented seeds (17-19 mm; MIC 5 mg/mL) and the raw and boiled seeds (16-18 mm; MIC 5 mg/mL). Monoglycerides were isolated and structures elucidated using H-NMR and C-DEPT as 2,3-dihydroxypropyl tetracosanoate (1), 2,3-dihydroxypropyl pentacosanoate (2) and 2,3- dihydroxypropyl hentriacontylate (3). Compounds (2) and (3) are reported for the first time from the seeds. This report indicated the potential benefit of P. macrophylla seeds fermentation to human nutrition and health.&nbsp;</p> J. N. Anowu A. B. Aliyu H. Ibrahim A. O. Oyewale Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.556 THE EFFECT OF ORGANOSOLV TREATMENT ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PULP AND PAPER FROM HORSE GRASS (ANDROPOGON TECTORUM). http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/561 <p>The delignification of horse grass (HG) was carried out using methanol and water (organosolv pulping); varying the cooking conditions at 30min, 60min and 90min with ratios: 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, Methanol-water, cooked in autoclave at 1050C. The pulp obtained were selected and macerated in equal volume of glacial acetic acid (ethanoic acid) and hydrogen peroxide (1:1) at a temperature 1000C, to investigate the fiber length; fiber diameter; lumen with their derived indices and paper strength properties was determined according to TAPPI standard methods, T 494 om-96. The best fiber length of 3.21mm, tear index 31.43 mN.m2/g, tensile index 97.79Nm/g and bulk index 5.15 kPa.m2/g was obtained at 1:3 methanol: H2O at 105°C with cooking time of 60 min. Therefore, it was established that high quality papers of different grades can be produced from horse grass with acceptable strength properties using low concentration of methanol/water pulping with moderate time at boiling temperature. The research concluded that methanol-water was excellently good for pulping of horse grass fibers. The above results showed that horse grass is a good alternative sources of fibers to produce pulp and paper. </p> O. Otitoju A.O. Ashogbon Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.561 EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE AND MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE (MCC) FROM Marantochloa cuspidata LEAVES http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/564 <p>Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from Marantochloa cuspidata leaves were isolated and characterized. The physicochemical properties of the leaves were investigated. The functional groups analyses were carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and the crystalline structure were investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The morphology and thermal stabilities were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) respectively. The moisture content of the leaves was 7.16± 0.12%. From FTIR, the spectra showed that the hemicelluloses and lignin were removed from the extracted cellulose. The peaks at 1733cm in the spectra of M. cuspidata leaves which were attributed to C = O stretching and C–O out-of plane stretching vibration of the hemicelluloses and lignin disappeared in the spectra of cellulose and MCC. XRD showed that the MCC produced is cellulose I polymorph. The SEM structures showed the microfibrils of the extracts to be crystallites. Cellulose and MCC were shown to have good thermal stability with a degradation temperature of 250oC and 260oC respectively. Keywords: Microcrystalline cellulose, Marantochloa cuspidata, physicochemical properties FTIR, XRD, SEM, TGA.</p> E. R Udo T. U. Onuegbu T. U. Onuegbu U. D. Akpabio Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.564 Application of Multivariate Data Analysis to the Determination of Multiclass Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/538 <p>Design of experiment (DOE) was employed to develop a headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) method for multiresidue analysis. The significance of SPME parameters was determined using Placket-Burman (P-B) design. The main effect and the interaction effect of the significant factors were also determined followed by the optimization of the significant factors using central composite design (CCD). A Minitab® statistical software was used to generate both the 27-4 Placket-Burman and the central composite design matrix. The same statistical software was also employed in the determination of the optimum level of the significant parameters using surface response optimizer and desirability surface plot. The most significant factors are: extraction temperature (90%), extraction time (80%), the pH and stirring rate (50% and 60% respectively). The optimum parameters are: Temperature, 62 °C; time, 34 min; NaCl, 10%; stirring, 350rpm; pH, 6. The figures of merit of analytical methodologies was determined using an internal standard calibration method. The linearity of the developed method ranges from 1- 500 µg/kg and correlation coefficient (R2) greater than 0.99. The average recovery was found between 74 – 115% and relative standard deviation ranges from 1.1 – 14%. The developed method was used to analyze 14 multiclass pesticide residues in two fruit (pear and grape) and two vegetable (lettuce and broccoli) samples, and the method was found to be satisfactory with LOD between 0.17 – 7.34 µg/kg and LOQ ranges from 0.55 – 24.50 µg/kg. <br>Keyword: Design of experiment (DOE), solid phase microextraction, response surface optimizer, pesticide residues, Central composite Design</p> L. B. Abdulra’uf A. Lawal Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.538 LEVELS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) IN FISH SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT PROCESSING METHODS http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/541 <p>Fish is easily contaminated from water prone to water pollution. In this study, the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish samples processed, using three methods and marketed in Makurdi, Benue state, were determined. The samples were coded as SF (Smoked Fish), SD (Sundried) and FD (fried) fish samples. PAHs in the samples were quantified, using gas chromatography – mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The Ʃ16PAH concentrations were in the range of 0.2- 10.0 mg/kg. Both LPAHs/HPAHs and the binary diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicated pyrogenic and petrogenic sources Ʃ16PAH and their dominant PAH ring-types were separately computed for each sample. The six-membered ring PAHs in smoked fish was 32.07% (with Bezo(ghi)perylene as most dominant). High levels of six member ring PAHs (Dibenz(a,h) anthracene) were also found in Sundried fish and fried fish contain Dibenz(a,h) anthracene. Generally, the PAHs concentrations in the samples, pointed more at pyrogenic than the petrogenic source. With exception of the five and six membered rings, estimated PAH levels were within the NAFDAC permissible limits.</p> A.U. Itodo V.O. Nnodim S. Ande H.U. Itodo O. Ofoegbu Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.541 Physical, Chemical and Functional Characterization of a Novel Starch from Dioscorea sagittifolia and its Synergetic Studies with Terminalia mantalys Gum http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/545 <p>A novel starch extracted from Dioscorea sagittifolia and its composite blends with gum from Terminalia mantalys were studied. The starch/gum blends were prepared in the following ratio: 3.0:0.0, 3.0:0.25, 3.0:0.50, 3.0:0.75 and 3.0:1.0. The proximate and functional properties of the novel starch were determined using standard procedures. The proximate analysis of the starch gave values of 14.37%, 84.63%, 2.30%, 1.92%, 1.34%, 0.56% and 93.88% for moisture, dry matter, crude protein, ash, crude fibre, crude fat and carbohydrate respectively. The energy value was 389.76 Kcal/100 g. The amylose and amylopectin contents of the novel starch were 23.65 and 76.35% respectively. There were significant differences in the solubility index, bulk/particle density, least gelation concentration and foaming capacity of the free starch and its blends while there were no significant differences in their water absorption capacity and swelling power. The peak and trough viscosities ranged from 26.17 (starch/gum ratio of 3.0:0.25) to 246.75 RVU (starch/gum ratio of 3.0:1.0) and 19.00 (starch/gum ratio of 3.0:0.25) to 221.75 RVU (starch/gum ratio of 3.0:1.0) respectively. Final viscosity ranged from 73.25 (starch/gum ratio of 3.0:0.25) to 290.67 RVU (starch/gum ratio of 3.0:1.0) while the pasting temperature and time ranged from 88.05 to 95.00 and 6.87 to 7.0 min, respectively. The morphology of the starch granules (size and shape) was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM), which revealed cylindrical, rod-like or oblong and oval shaped granules that are symmetrical with smooth surfaces and with lengths between 134 and 179􀀀􀀁m. There were no appreciable change in shapes and sizes of the starch granules after modification with T. mantalys gum. Generally, there were improvements in the functional properties of the starch after modification. The nutritional properties of the novel starch have also been revealed. Keywords: Dioscorea sagittifolia, Terminalia mantalys, Starch, Gum, Functional properties</p> O. U. Igwe E. H. Oko J. C. Nnaji F. Chisom Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.545 EFFECT OF STORAGE AND INSECT INFESTATION ON PHYSICO CHEMICAL AND NUTRITIVE VALUES OF SUN DRIED YAM (DIOSCOREA ROTUNDATA) http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/548 <p>Effect of storage and insect infestation on physicochemical and nutritive values of sundried yam (Dioscorea Rotundata) were studied. The samples were subjected to proximate and elemental analyses. There was a decrease in carbohydrate value of the infested yam compared with the uninfested yam which was also found to be lower than that of the raw yam. Copper, zinc, iron, magnesium, potassium, calcium and sodium were found to be 72.69 mg/100g, 70.58 mg/100g, 78.88 mg/100g, 71.70 mg/100g, 76.60 mg/100g, 60.06 mg/100g and 50.35 mg/100g in uninfested yam while the values of the mineral elements in the infested yam samples were obtained as 76.22 mg/100g, 75.91 mg/100g, 77.02 mg/100g, 76.08 mg/100g, 80.04 mg/100g, 64.55 mg/100g, 52.02 mg/100g compared to the raw yam which gave 74.44 mg/100g, 73.58 mg/100g, 79.99 mg/100g, 75.48 mg/100g, 78.26 mg/100g, 72.98 mg/100g and 51.50 mg/100g respectively. The Results showed that the samples were non–resistant to insect infestation with acute deterioration in food values.</p> J.A. AREMU L.M. DUROSINMI J.A. AREMU F. OLADOYINBO A.K. AKINLABI E.O. DARE Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.548 Comparative Studies on the Chemo and Biosynthesized Nanomaterials for the Remediation of Pharmaceutical Residues in Wastewater http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/551 <p>In the present study, comparison was made on the wastewater remediation efficiencies of chemically and biologically synthesized magnetite and zinc oxide nanoparticles. Starchytarpheta indica (snake weed) leaf extract was used as a reducing and capping agent in the green synthesis of magnetite and zinc oxide. The synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction studies (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). These synthesized nanoparticles were further applied in the treatment of industrial pharmaceutical effluent basically comprising amoxicillin, acetaminophen and ascorbic acid. The NPs all performed differently in the removal of these pharmaceutical active compounds. Results showed that the NPs had significant removal efficiencies for acetaminophen, ranging from 67.07 % - 93.59 %, with bio-ZnO having the highest removal efficiency and magnetite giving the least. The range of removal efficiency for ascorbic acid was 54.35 % - 100 %, Magnetite and bio-magnetite showed the highest removal efficiencies whereas bio-ZnO had the least removal rate. Wastewater treatment for the removal of amoxicillin residues with the synthesized nanoparticles was not quite significant, negative removal patterns were observed for wastewater treatment with bio-ZnO and magnetite, a removal rate of 16.82 % was obtained for treatment with bio-magnetite, ZnO NPs had the highest removal efficiency of 49.73 %. Generally, ZnO and bio-magnetite NPs displayed better removal capacities than the other NPs, with overall removal rates of 64.71 % and 48.92 % for ZnO and bio-magnetite NPs respectively.</p> C. M. Ngwu J. C. Nnaji S. O. Odoemelam F. J. Amaku Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-10-31 2020-10-31 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.551 Assessment of Ambient Air Quality around Ihetutu Minefield, Ishiagu, Nigeria http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/554 <p>This study assessed the levels of physicochemical characteristics and heavy metals in ambient air around Ihetutu community in Ishiagu, Nigeria, to evaluate the impact of prolonged Pb-Zn mining and several other related activities on air quality in the area. Particulates, heavy metals, microclimatic and gaseous parameters in ambient air were analyzed for the assessment. Sampling and quality measurements were done during rainy, late rainy, dry and late dry seasons between 2018 and 2019, from study and control areas. Samples were analyzed for particulates and heavy metals in the laboratory while microclimatic and gaseous parameters were measured in-situ using standard field equipment and procedures. Mean and seasonal concentrations of parameters were determined to evaluate the ambient air quality at various locations in the study area. Results showed high mean values of some parameters including; ambient temperature (35.19oC), Relative Humidity (65.78%), SO2 (0.33ppm), NO2 (0.30ppm), PM10 (89.73µg/m3), Cu (0.03mg/L), Zn (0.06mg/L), Fe (0.39mg/L), Mn (2.28mg/L), Ni (0.04mg/L) and Pb (0.05mg/L). Highest Noise level in the study area was 60.40 dB(A). SO2 and NO2 were below detection limits during the dry seasons, but with mean levels above daily average limits of DPR, NESREA, and WHO, due to their high levels during the rainy seasons, except at Amaonye Square. CO mean levels were above FMEnv daily average limit but within DPR limit. PM10 mean values were within NESREA recommended daily average limit while dry season values were above. Zn and Fe pollution along the stations were in the order of SAS3&gt;SAS4&gt;SAS5, while Pb pollution was SAS3&gt;SAS4=SAS5. Generally, trend of heavy metal pollution was Mn&gt;Fe&gt;Pb&gt;Zn&gt;Cd=Cu=Ni. Highest positive correlation within the heavy metals was between Zn and Fe (r = 1.000). There were also no statistically significant differences in means of the parameters among sampling stations (p&gt;0.05). The results revealed pollution of ambient air in the area by heavy metals and gaseous substances, especially around the mining sites and high traffic areas. Proper monitoring of the operations of mining companies and other artisan activities is recommended, to ensure that ambient air status in the area is excellent and within standard guidelines.</p> A. G. Benibo R. Sha'Ato R. A. Wuana A. U. Itodo Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.554 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF BERGENIN FROM ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF FLUEGGEA VIROSA LEAVES http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/559 <p>Bergenin is an important constituent of Flueggea virosa (Euphorbiaceae), a tropical plant with several traditional uses. While there are numerous reports on the isolation and characterization of bergenin, a rapid, high-throughput, readily accessible method for the isolation and characterization of the compound locally has not been reported. Isocratic elution of ethyl acetate extract via vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) with methanol produced a white amorphous solid (100 mg), which was successfully isolated from 250 g of the plant. On the basis of spectral data (1H, C NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with literature reports, the structure of this solid was shown to be bergenin, a dihydroisocoumarin derivative of glucopyranosyl gallic acid. </p> C. T. Agber T. A. Tor-Anyii J. O. Igoli J. V. Anyam Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.559 Effects of Ramp Rate and Starting Temperature on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analyses of Petroleum Hydrocarbons http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/562 <p>The quest for better GC-MS/FID starting temperature and ramping conditions for the quantification of hydrocarbons in our environment necessitated this study. A surrogate n-alkane standard was screened using nine GC-MS conditions involving the alteration of ramp rates and/or initial temperatures. There was observed increase in the TIC chromatogram or ionic mass unit as the ramp rate or initial temperatures were increased. The peak areas of the analytes were significantly affected. The R2 and response factor values of the eight standard calibration curves (each for a modified method) varied from 0.9224 – 0.9971 and 0.0034 – 0.0045 respectively. Consequently, the quantification of the diesel concentration in diesel spiked water and soil by using the eight methods was different from each other and from the standard method. Average differences of 11.5 and 15 % from the theoretical values were observed for the water and soil analyses respectively. Increasing ramp rates or initial temperatures led to shorter throughput but less data accuracy. The use of 60 oC as starting temperature and ramp at 5 oC/minute was better for quantification of the diesel range organics.</p> S. U. Oghoje J. E. Ukpebor P. O. Agbaire C. Ejeomo P. O. Oviasogie Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-04 2020-11-04 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.562 HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF SOME SELECTED POULTRY LAYERS FEED PRODUCED IN ADO ODO OTA LOCAL GOVERNMENT http://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/565 <p>Foods including feed of animals are known to be contaminated with heavy metals and other microbial sources originating from their raw materials, water or processes involved in their preparation or formulation. This study focused on assessing the heavy metal concentration, ash content, moisture content and pH of three different feeds sold around Ado Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. It was observed that the ash contents of the products varies from 13.19% to 35.24%; moisture content ranges from 4.12% to 8.16% while the three feed are of neutral pH value. The heavy metals concentration varies across each sample (Iron 2.644mg/kg to 6.713mg/kg; Lead 0.15mg/kg to 6.7mg/kg; copper 0.00mg/kg; Zinc 0.065mg/kg to 0.572mg/kg; Chromium 0.003mg/kg to 0.127mg/kg and Manganese 1.946mg/kg to 3.113mg/kg). All parameters obtained were below the Federal Agricultural Organization and World Health Organization except that of Lead obtained in Mubat Feed sample coded as C which is 6.7mg/kg which could have deleterious effect on the health status of layers fed with such feed as well that of man upon consumption of such poultry eggs or meat.</p> S. O Aminu F.M. Oladipo Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 45 6 10.46602/jcsn.v45i6.565