Proximate and Acute Toxicity Profile of Vitex doniana (Black Plum) Fruit


  • C. Imoisi
  • J.U. Iyasele
  • S.E. Okhale



The fresh fruits of Vitex doniana sweet were collected from several randomly selected trees in a farm site in Uromi metropolis, Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state and then processed into an extract in form of syrup. The proximate composition and acute toxicity profile of Vitex doniana sweet fruit were investigated to ascertain its safety and nutritional capability. Analysis of the fruit showed it to be a highly nutritious food containing moisture of about, 9.90%, ash content: 21.5%, fat: 0.75%, fiber: Not detected (ND), protein: 0.006% and carbohydrate: 67.84%. Twenty mice were randomized based on body weight into five groups of four mice each. Three mice in each group were given syrup volumes of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/ml respectively, corresponding to 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg doses. In contrast, mice in the control group received potable water (10 mL/kg). The mice in all the groups were observed closely for mortality, toxicity signs and abnormalities in gross behaviour at 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h, and then daily for 14 days. Based on the model used, the fruit was acutely safe in mice, since no death was observed within 24 hours after oral treatment and on extrapolation gave a high predictive value in humans. The LD50 value of black plum fruit was also found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. Therefore, Vitex doniana fruit should be considered a source of edible syrup bearing in mind the safety, quantity and variety of nutrients it contains.




How to Cite

Imoisi, C. ., Iyasele, J. ., & Okhale, S. . (2021). Proximate and Acute Toxicity Profile of Vitex doniana (Black Plum) Fruit . Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 46(2).