https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/issue/feed Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2022-07-04T05:32:19+00:00 Prof. Joseph Anireju LORI csnjournal@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-top: 0px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria is a bimonthly publication of original research reports in pure and applied chemistry. 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It is made clear herein that the data and information in the articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Consequently, the Editorial board and their respective staff and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such misleading data and/or information.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">©CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (CSN)</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"><strong> Prof. Joseph Anireju LORI</strong><sub>BSc, MSc, PhD, FCSN, FICCON, FRSC</sub></p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> Editor-in-Chief</p> https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/758 BIOORGANOMETALLIC FERROQUINE AND RELATED COMPOUNDS AS ANTIMALARIAL CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS: A SHORT REVIEW 2022-07-01T05:33:02+00:00 T. A. Abubakar aabu_tenimu@slu.edu.ng U. B. Eke aabu_tenimu@slu.edu.ng A. Salisu aabu_tenimu@slu.edu.ng <p>Drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is a major threat to global health. Eradicating the parasite in endemic regions, especially sub-Saharan Africa is daunting. Milestones and a general target of 2030 have been set for this. However, funding and disruptions due to Ebola virus disease epidemic and COVID-19 pandemic are some of the cog in the wheel of the malaria eradication program. The recent WHO approval of the first malaria vaccine is a hope raiser and is expected to merely catalyze the eradication effort. Chemoprevention is a key malaria eradication strategy. Ferroquine, an organometallic chloroquine-ferrocene conjugate with effective antimalarial properties is capable of overcoming resistant strains and restoring chloroquine antimalarial properties. It has a novel mechanism of action. Like chloroquine, it forms complex with Fe(III)PPIX, strongly inhibit ß-hematin formation and drug accumulation in the acidic digestive vacuole. ferroquine is more lipophilic at cytosolic pH and cannot be pumped out of digestive vacuole thereby evading the chloroquine resistance mechanism. Clinical trials showed the drug candidate to be safe and tolerable. The ferroquine molecule can be conveniently synthesized via a reductive amination reaction involving a condensation of 7-chloroquinolin-4-amine and amino ferrocenyl aldehyde in a single stage procedure. It is well characterized. Studies revealed that covalently bonded chloroquine-ferrocene is responsible for the molecule's efficacy against P. falciparum. The pure chloroquine or ferrocene moieties are less active. Structural adjustments in amino group side chain, changes in position of the ferrocenyl organometallic group, substituting the Fe with other bioactive metals (Ru, Rh, Os) and substituting chloroquine for other organic molecules with antimalarial properties, all resulted in analogues with potent antimalarial properties similar to or better than chloroquine but not as effective as ferroquine.</p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/761 EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES, FATTY ACIDS AND ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED OIL [MOSO] GROWN IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA. 2022-07-01T05:56:09+00:00 O. E. Adejumo unmijumo@yahoo.co.uk A. A. Fasanya unmijumo@yahoo.co.uk A. L. Kolapo unmijumo@yahoo.co.uk <p>The present investigation evaluated the physicochemical, alpha tocopherol content, fatty acid composition, and antimicrobial properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil [MOSO] extracted from M. oleifera seed indigenous to South-Western Nigeria. The oil yield obtained after Soxhlet [n-hexane] extraction of M. oleifera seeds was 37.35 ± 1.13%. The saponification value [mg of KOH g−1 of oil] of the extracted MOSO was 252.90 ± 2.78 while the acid value [mg KOH g−1 of oil] was 2.34 ± 0.23. The peroxide value [mequiv O2 kg−1] and iodine value [g of I2 100 g−1 of oil] were 4.89 ±0.42 and 67.68 ± 1.34 respectively. The specific gravity [@ 25 °C], refractive index [@ 40 °C], and viscosity [mpa.s @40 °C] were 0.90 ± 0.01, 1.464 ± 0.01, and 58.90 ± 3.52 respectively. Alpha-tocopherol [mg 100 g−1 of oil] content of the n-hexane extracted MOSO was 1.44 ± 0.01, and its corresponding mg/serving and percentage daily value [%] were 0.202 and 1.35 respectively. Chemical compounds identified by GC-MS analysis include Ethanol, 2-butoxy [7.56 %], Benzene-1-ethyl-4-methyl-[6.34 %], Benzene-1,2,3-trimethyl-[7.65 %], Benzene-1,2,4-trimethyl- [17.39 %] Isophorone [10.71 %], n-hexadecanoic acid [Palmitic Acid] [12.17 %], Oleic Acid [35.97 %], and Butyl- 9-octadecenoate [2.21 %]. The observed antimicrobial activity was concentration dependent. At 50 and 100 mg/ml, MOSO demonstrated intermediate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillum notatum while no activity was observed below 50 mg/ml. The examined MOSO exhibited good quality characteristics and could be utilized as alternative vegetable oil for food, industrial and pharmaceutical applications.</p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/766 TRANSITIONAL STATES PARTICIPATION IN PHOTODEGRADATION OF METHYL ORANGE FROM GREEN TITANIUM NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIS USING Deinbollia pinnta LEAVES 2022-07-04T04:46:53+00:00 Y. Rufai yakuburufaibaby@gmail.com N. Basar yakuburufaibaby@gmail.com K. Suleiman yakuburufaibaby@gmail.com I. Yinusa yakuburufaibaby@gmail.com <p>The surface chemistry of nanostructures concerning their smaller sizes, unique optical and electronic properties continue to benefit organic medicinal chemistry and biosynthesis of active titania nanoparticles with metabolites present in plant extracts. Deinbollia pinnata ethyl acetate leave extracts with sol-gel method afforded titania nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs-anatase) with photodegradation performance at 98.7% of methyl orange (MO) conversion within 150 mins. Together with observed participation of π-π* transition state more than that of η-π* state. The GC-MS spectrum revealed classes of compounds which include long-chain fatty acids, galloyl ester, long-chain esters, tetraterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoid terpenoid (isoprenoids) with a correlation maximum of stigmasterol (94%)as phytochemical contents of the crude extracts. The physiochemical analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed average crystallite size in the range of 19 – 21 nm, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) displayed uniform semi-spherical shape in the size range of 33 – 48 nm, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra depicted main elements of Ti (61 Wt.%) and O (35 Wt.%), UV-Vis spectroscopy exhibited band-gap energy of 3.2 eV, nitrogen sorption analysis specified type IV isotherm and BET surface area of 31.77 m2/g. The super-striking green TiO2 NPs photodegradation in this work with wide-ranged transitional states involvement, can, in turn, be used as bio-mediated TiO2 NPs in medicinal chemistry to enhance pharmacokinetics, pharmacological properties and replace chemical agents thereby reducing side effects at drug delivery site actions. Thus, natural products continue to integrate research advances and innovation.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/749 NICKEL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES BIOSYNTHESIZED WITH Moringa Oleifera LEAVES EXTRACTS: SPECTROSCOPIC AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION IN THE DETECTION OF Escherichia Coli O157:H7 2022-06-24T07:44:48+00:00 S. A. Mamuru mamuru19@adsu.edu.ng C. Zedekiah mamuru19@adsu.edu.ng A. E. Eseyin mamuru19@adsu.edu.ng C. N. A. Djieyep mamuru19@adsu.edu.ng Joel Filgona mamuru19@adsu.edu.ng <p>Metal nanoparticle synthesis using plant extracts has gained a lot of attention because of its ease-of-use, environmental friendliness and simplicity. In this study, nickel nanoparticles were synthesized using an aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves in a one-step synthesis technique. The formation of nickel nanoparticles was confirmed using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and EDS, and FTIR spectroscopy showed that these nickel nanoparticles may be reduced to nickel chloride by biomolecules that have an amide and phenolic structure. The electrochemical activity of synthesized nickel nanoparticles is revealed further by electrochemical characterization using cyclic voltammetry; preliminary study on electrochemical detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 shows an increased current response in the presence of nickel nanoparticles, which could be attributed to nickel nanoparticles rupturing the Escherichia coli cell membrane. This finding suggests that nickel nanoparticles could be used to detect E. coli O157:H7 directly.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/752 THE SEDIMENTATION BEHAVIOURS OF AlPO4 AND Fe3(PO4)2 PRECIPITATES IN SOLUTIONS OF SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES 2022-06-24T08:04:14+00:00 K. G. Amadi daopuye.iboroma1@ust.edu.ng D. S. Iboroma daopuye.iboroma1@ust.edu.ng <p>To evaluate the sedimentation of aluminium phosphate [AlPO4] and ferrous phosphate [Fe3(PO4)2] precipitates in sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) biopolymer at different temperatures, batch-wise precipitation and sedimentation tests of AlPO4 and Fe3(PO4)2 in solutions of Na-CMC were carried out at temperatures of 30, 40 and 50oC. The objective was to determine On-set Sedimentation Rate (OSR) and Sedimentation Volume Ratio (SVR) of the metal phosphates. Fixed volume of Na-CMC at different concentrations was mixed with constant volume and known concentration of phosphate ion precursor (disodium hydrogen phosphate solution) in a sedimentation measurement apparatus - PreSed Meter. The resulting solution was mixed separately with constant volume and known concentration of either aluminium ion or iron (II) ion precursor (either aluminium chloride or ferrous chloride solution). The settling of the precipitate so formed was monitored and recorded. Blank sedimentation tests, without Na-CMC, were also run. For every measurement, On-set Sedimentation Rate (OSR) and Sedimentation Volume Ratio (SVR) of the precipitates were computed. It was observed that in the absence of Na-CMC, AlPO4 precipitate readily dissolved into the medium immediately after stirring. Also, in the absence of Na-CMC, OSR and SVR of Fe3(PO4)2 precipitate increased directly with increased temperatures. The test results also indicated that AlPO4 precipitate suspension was poorly influenced by the biopolymer. Poor correlations in OSR (0.50 ≤ R2 ≥ 0.05) and SVR (0.49 ≤ R2 ≥ 0.005) indicating non-dependence with Na-CMC concentration, implying no chemical interactions with Na-CMC, were described for AlPO4 suspension at all temperatures investigated. For Fe3(PO4)2 suspension, good correlations in OSR (R2 = 0.94) and SVR (R2 = 0.93) indicating dependence with Na-CMC concentration, implying chemical interaction with Na-CMC, were obtained at high temperature (50oC). The observations imply that Na-CMC would be good stabilizing agent for drug formulations containing AlPO4. However, suspension of Fe3(PO4)2 in Na-CMC need not be stored in high temperature conditions.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/755 GREEN WASTE DERIVED ALKALI FOR REMEDIATION APPLICATION IN HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER AND ITS KINETICS EVALUATION 2022-06-24T08:28:40+00:00 O.V. Akpoveta akpovin2@gmail.com J. Arigbede akpovin2@gmail.com J.O Obielumani akpovin2@gmail.com <p>The production of high purity alkali that can be sourced from green wastes (plantain peels) as an alternative remediation option that is effective, efficient, environmental friendly and less expensive for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated groundwater constitutes the focus of this study. High purity alkali was produced from plantain peels using standard methods to give a yield of 89.72%, with the potash predominantly potassium carbonate. Groundwater was contaminated with 5% Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Fe from their respective metal salts by 10% simulation. pH and heavy metal analysis were done using standard methods. Heavy metals contaminated groundwater was treated by precipitation with the alkali produced after appropriate optimization process. Optimization of pH for effective remediation showed optimum precipitation efficiency at a pH of 10 for all metals. Treatment of the simulated groundwater gave remediation efficiencies of 88.24%, 91.05%, 85.45% and 90.44% for Zn, Cu, Ni and Mn removal respectively, after 12hours treatment period at pH ranges of 8.1-10. While those of Pb and Fe were found as 89.77% and 95.15% respectively, after same treatment period at pH ranges of 7.85-10; which were within the minimal pH values required for metal precipitation. Precipitation processes all followed zero order kinetics with zero order rate constants of 1.242 µg/lhr-1, 0.933 µg/lhr-1, 0.493 µg/lhr-1 0.608 µg/lhr-1, 0.157 µg/lhr-1 and 3.411 µg/lhr-1 for the removal of Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Fe respectively from the treated groundwater. Half life for the remediation processes were found as 6hours 24minutes, 6hours 21minutes, 7hours 22seconds, 6hours 22minutes 12 seconds, 6hours 44minutes 24 seconds and 6hours 24minutes 22 seconds for the removal of Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Fe respectively from the treated groundwater. The time required for complete precipitation and removal of the metals to zero metal concentration was found to be 12 hours 48minutes 36 seconds, 12 hours 42minutes, 14 hours 36 seconds, 12 hours 43minutes 48 seconds, 13 hours 30minutes and 12 hours 48minutes 36 seconds for Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Fe respectively. Significant differences at 95% confidence limit (p ≤ 0.05) were statistically observed when the initial metal concentrations were compared to residual metal concentrations left after treatment, showing the efficacy of the treatment process. The use of potash alkali locally sourced from green waste in wastewater remediation for heavy metals is seen to be quite fast, cost effective, efficient and viable, thus providing a viable alternative for remediation experts in this regard.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/759 ASSESSMENT OF NUTRIENTS AND TOXIC MINERALS LEVELS IN RICE AND BEANS SAMPLES BY INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS AND ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 2022-07-01T05:41:46+00:00 S. Yusuf sayzay37@yahoo.com A. Busari sayzay37@yahoo.com <p>The aim of this study was to assess the nutrients and toxic minerals levels in rice and beans by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Four varieties of rice and six of beans were bought from markets in Jigawa, Kano and Kebbi all in North-Western Nigeria in 2019 were investigated under this study. INAA was used for determination of multiple nutrients and toxic minerals and AAS was used to determine Pb and Cd The range obtained for each of the nutrients and toxic minerals in the rice samples analysed were Pb (3.91 to 5.00), Cd (0.0067 to 0.0233), La, (1.19 to 6.38), Cr (3.31 to 8.09), Co (0.00 to 0.456), Mn (13.5 to 45.4), Cu (2.08 to 19.9), Zn (66.5 to 146), Fe (250 to 700), Sm (0.169 to 0.605) and V (0.27 to 4.49), Mg (709 to 2061), Al (498 to 8636), Cl (151 to 482), Ca (672 to 2037), K (2789 to 4161), Na (517.5 to 2645), Br (0.54 to 4.41) and Sc (0.22 to 1.2) mg/Kg. while for the beans samples the range were: Pb (0.00 – 0.82), Cd (0.01 – 0.02), La (0.06 - 1.11), Cr (2.08 to 4.3), Co (0.19 to 18), Mn (16.1 to 48.1), Cu (0.000 to 5.15), Zn (26.0 to 60.0), Fe (0.000 to 420), Sm (0.006 to 0.132), La (0.060 to 1.11) and V (0.00 to 1.98), Mg (192 to 1998), Al (94.0 to 2799), Cl (152.7 to 195), Ca (624 to 1945), K (8522 to 13970), Na (314 to286), Br (1.33 to 2.98) and Sc (0.018 to 0.23) mg/Kg. The levels of the nutrients and toxic minerals were higher in the rice samples compared to the beans except for Co and Mn. Mean concentration of all the nutrients and toxic minerals analysed were within the limits set by FAO/WHO, except for Pb and Cr which were above the recommended limit. Lead (Pb) has been implicated to cause severe damage to the kidneys, nervous system, brain and reproductive system, whereas, chromium (VI) has been associated with lung cancer.</p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/762 PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF GRAIN SAMPLES FROM STRATEGIC GRAIN RESERVE FACILITIES IN NIGERIA 2022-07-01T06:02:41+00:00 S. F. Ekanem sfekanem30@gmail.com A. A. Audu sfekanem30@gmail.com M. Lieberman sfekanem30@gmail.com <p>This study aims at evaluating the basic nutritional food value of grains from strategic grain reserve facilities in Nigeria. Of the twenty-two samples analysed, red maize from Lagos State has the highest protein content of 11.84±0.28% followed by millet from Gombe State (10.64±0.60%) and red maize from Minna in Niger State (10.42±0.66%). The protein content for all samples is found to be in the range of 23.92±1.3 to 8.40±0.59%. The carbohydrate content range is 73.87±0.33 to 53.97±3.19%, fat range is 4.87±1.56 to 1.47±0.49%, Crude Fibre range is 4.36±0.47 to 1.59±0.01%, ash content range is 3.56±0.11 to 1.21±0.30 and Moisture content range is 17.23±0.50 to 10.33±0.37. All maize, sorghum and millet samples were found to contain appreciable levels of carbohydrate, while the cowpea samples have high levels of protein. From the analysis, the grain samples were found to meet the minimum requirement for the different nutrient content (essential composition and quality factors) for which they were analysed, as spelt out in International Food Standards by WHO and FAO in CODEX Alimentarius and thus recommended fit for use as first line of food relief within the country, to assist friendly countries in times of pandemics, disaster and to make food accessible at other times at affordable prices in line with the vision for instituting the strategic grain reserve facilities in different states of Nigeria.</p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/767 PRODUCTION OR ACTIVATED CARBON FROM COCONUT SHELL USING DIFFERENT CHEMICALS AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ADSORPTION EFFICIENCIES. 2022-07-04T04:55:33+00:00 E. C. Ofomata admin@chemsociety.org.ng N. A. Okonkwo admin@chemsociety.org.ng I. M. I loameke admin@chemsociety.org.ng <p>Activated carbon is a crude form of graphite and a generic term used to describe a family of carbonaceous adsorbent material, possessing a highly crystalline form and extensively developed internal pore structures, colour, texture and odour. In this research, activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell using physicohemical activation method, which includes the treatment with different activating chemical (H204, HCl, ZnCl2, CaO3 CaCl3, H3P04) and pyrolyzation with heat. The processes used include carbonization of simples, oxidation, washing of samples, chemical activation with different activating chemicals serially for 24hrs, drying of samples in an oven for 1hr at a temperature of 1500C, pounding and sieving of samples to different sizes. The percentage yields of the material before activation was 96% and after activation was 93%, respectively. Digital pH meters and digital turbidity meter were the instruments used in the evaluation of the adsorption efficiencies, using samples of vinegar and fresh smelling fish water. The results show that in the order of the adsorption efficiencies of these activating chemicals, ZnCl2 is the lowest adsorption efficiency (45/12%), while CaCl2 has the highest (83.93%).</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/747 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WILDLIFE GEOPHAGIC SOIL: A PRELIMINARYASSESSMENT FOR POSSIBLE UTILIZATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES 2022-06-24T07:32:36+00:00 R. O. Adewale adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng E. O. Philip adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng O. B. Banjo adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng O. A. Oguntade adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng B. R. Odebiyi adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng O. A. Akinsorotan adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng O. A. Odusanya adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng <p>The act of consuming soil (geophagy) has been reported both in man and wildlife. Most previous studies have concentrated more on various type of geophagic soilswith less attention on termite mounds (TMs), thus limiting our understanding the cause(s) of geophagy. This study investigated the physico-chemical constituents of wildlife geophagic TMsincomparison with non-geophagic forest soil (FS). Composite soil samples were collected each from four different TMs and a FS. Samples were analyzed for pH, texture, electrical conductivity (EC), water retention capacity (WRC), moisture content (MC) and colour.Soils were analyzed in triplicates following standard methods. Datagenerated were analyzed statisticallywith SPSS version 17.Theresult indicated acidic pH for both TMs(strongly to slightly acidic) and FS (slightly acidic). Clay content, EC, WRC and MC were significantly higher in TMs than FS.The colour of TMs ranged from reddish brown(4R 4/5) to dark brown (2.5R 5/7 or 5R 6/8) as against that of FS which was black (2R 2/4). Wildlife may be consuming TMs in preference to FS for; detoxification (high clay content), ant-diarrhea (high WRC and MC), Fe-supplement (brown colour of TMs) and dissolved salt content (high EC). Detailed studies intomineralogical and microbiological compositions of TMs may be needed to further justify the rolesof geophagy in wildlife.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/750 Xylopia aethiopica EXTRACT AS GREEN AND ECO-FRIENDLY CORROSION INHIBITOR AND ITS QUANTUM CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 2022-06-24T07:51:14+00:00 N. E. Ibisi admin@chemsociety.org.ng J. Yang admin@chemsociety.org.ng A. A. Ekweli admin@chemsociety.org.ng <p>This work examines the corrosion inhibitory behavior of Xylopia aethiopica stem bark and root bark extracts respectively on corrosion of mild steel in 2M HCl solution and their quantum chemical analysis using gravimetric technique and quantum computational modeling. The corrosion rates of the mild steel coupons in blank HCl solutions were found to increase with increase in concentration of the corrodent, period of immersion and rise in temperature. On the other hand, the corrosion rate decreased in the acid solution containing the test extracts and the decrease became more pronounced on increase in the concentrations of Xylopia aethiopica stem bark and root bark extracts respectively. The decrease in corrosion rate indicates that the extracts inhibited corrosion of mild steel in the acid solution and inhibition efficiency increased with increase in extract concentrations. The inhibition is attributed to adsorption of the test extract constituent molecules on the mild steel surface, forming a film layer that protects the metal surface from the corrodent. Results of quantum chemical computational analysis proved that, 3-dimethyl- 1-vinylcyclohexene among the constituent compounds of Xylopia aethiopica bark extract would be the most likely organic compound to share electrons with the metal surface for possible adsorption bond. The adsorption of the extract molecules on the mild steel surface fitted into Langmuir adsorption isotherm with slope values of 0.86 and 0.98 for Xylopia aethiopica root bark and stem bark extracts respectively, and regression correlation (R2) values of 1.0 and 0.99 for root and stem extracts respectively.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/753 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND AN ANTIMICROBIAL ASSAY OF METHANOL ROOT AND LEAVES EXTRACTS OF Hippocratea indica Willd. 2022-06-24T08:12:13+00:00 O. S. Sojinu akinloyedi@funaab.edu.ng D. I. Akinloye akinloyedi@funaab.edu.ng A. M. Mosaku akinloyedi@funaab.edu.ng A. Ta. Adebusuyi akinloyedi@funaab.edu.ng D. Oduntan akinloyedi@funaab.edu.ng A. E. Afolabi akinloyedi@funaab.edu.ng M. K. O. Arifalod akinloyedi@funaab.edu.ng <p>The plant Hippocratea indica is reported in ethnomedicine for treating various illnesses like guinea worm infestation and respiratory troubles. Hippocratea indica root and leaves were extracted respectively using methanol. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the respective crude methanol root and leaves extracts of Hippocratea indica revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and glycoside. At the same time, phlobatannins was found only in the root. Column chromatography of the fractionated extract was carried out to get saturated, aromatic and non-polar fractions. The methanol crude extract of Hippocratea indica Willd indicates that the root and leaves extracts have high antimicrobial activities with higher sensitivity for the gram-negative bacteria than the gram-positive ones. The first fraction's gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed. Forty-six compounds were identified in the methanol root extract, while thirteen were identified in the leaf extract through GC-MS analysis. The most abundant phytochemical was m-pyrol (23.73 %), followed by fumaric acid (8.59 %) and squalene (6.03 %) in the root extracted, while trans-geranylgeraniol (30.56 %), 2,6-ditert-butyl-4-[(2-octadecyloxycarbonyl) ethyl] phenol (22.51 %) and squalene (20.18 %) are in the leaves extract. These most abundant phytochemicals might be responsible for methanol root's antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity and leave extract of Hippocratea indica.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/756 POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) IN THE LEAVES OF PIPER GUINEENSE FROM TWO MARKETS WITHIN UMUAHIA METROPOLIS 2022-06-24T08:37:11+00:00 O. U. Igwe gwe.okenwa@mouau.edu.ng E. N. Nwosu gwe.okenwa@mouau.edu.ng A. C. Egwu gwe.okenwa@mouau.edu.ng <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were probed in the leaves of Piper guineense obtained from Orieugba and Isigate markets within Umuahia metropolis in Umuahia North Local Government Area of Abia State. Prior to drying, milling and extraction procedures, P. guineense obtained from each of these markets was divided into three portions. The first portion was not washed (UW), the second portion was washed with ordinary tap water (WTW) while the third portion was washed with about 0.17 mol dm-3 of NaCl solution (WSS). Quantitation of the PAHs was done using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. Eighteen PAHs were analyzed and P. guineense samples from Orieugba market gave a total PAHs content of 30.71, 22.18 and 8.31 mg kg-1 for UW, WTW and WSS, respectively. The samples from Isigate market gave 18.27, 15.59 and 1.20 mg kg-1 for UW, WTW and WSS, respectively. This investigation showed that the level of PAHs in the leaf samples of P. guineense from the two markets decreased when washed with ordinary tap water but decreased more significantly when washed with the salt solution. In addition, the risk assessment of ΣPAH4 (the sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and chrysene) in the vegetable sample indicated that there was no risk associated with the consumption of the vegetable samples. However, it is pertinent to wash vegetables with a salt solution before proper rinsing as this would help to reduce the quantity of PAHs in them. <br>Keywords: PAHs; P. guineense; GC/MS; Vegetables; Leaf sample</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/760 DISCHARGE OF EMERGING CONTAMINANT LADEN EFFLUENTS BY INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA - A REVIEW 2022-07-01T05:49:07+00:00 B. I. Ugwu admin@chemsociety.org.ng J. C Nnaji admin@chemsociety.org.ng H. O. Chukwuemeka-Okorie admin@chemsociety.org.ng M. J. Siyaka admin@chemsociety.org.ng F. J. Amaku admin@chemsociety.org.ng C. Ngwu admin@chemsociety.org.ng S. A. Odoemelam admin@chemsociety.org.ng <p>Industrialization in Nigeria has resulted in the production of diverse products by various industries engaged in the production of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, textiles, paints and varnishes, soaps and detergents, foods and beverages, agro-chemicals and textiles. Effluents from these industries are the most probable sources of emerging contaminants in the Nigerian environment. However, despite the awareness of the existence and effects of conventional pollutants associated with industrial wastewater discharge, there is low level of awareness of the harmful effects of emerging contaminants (ECs) in industrial wastewaters discharged into the environment in Nigeria. In order to raise the level of awareness and elicit appropriate discharge compliance by industries, this review of industrial effluents generation and disposal by some selected industries who produce ECs was carried out. An outcome of the review is the dearth of current information on the volume of wastewater generated by industries in Nigeria and the non-existence of environmental policies or laws on ECs. Recommendations were made on the future research areas on ECs in Nigeria.</p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/765 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE FROM Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth POD BIOMASS WASTES FOR POLYMER REINFORCEMENT COMPOSITE 2022-07-04T04:40:02+00:00 O. P. Nsude okechukwu.nsude@esut.edu.ng Agboeze, Emmanuel okechukwu.nsude@esut.edu.ng E. C. Ezeh okechukwu.nsude@esut.edu.ng O. C Ike okechukwu.nsude@esut.edu.ng O. C. Omuluche okechukwu.nsude@esut.edu.ng K. J. Orie okechukwu.nsude@esut.edu.ng O. Ogbobe okechukwu.nsude@esut.edu.ng <p>The interest in natural reinforced polymer composite materials is rapidly growing both in industrial and basic research applications. This is based on its availability, renewability, low density, cheapness, biodegradability, and satisfactory mechanical properties. The research reports on the isolation and characterization of cellulose from Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth Pod (PMBP) biomass wastes for polymer reinforcement composites. Cellulose was successfully isolated from PMBP biomass via delignification and bleaching. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and deformation gravimetric analysis (DGA) were used to characterise the raw and isolated cellulose. The isolated cellulose has better thermal stability, crystallinity, and porosity than the raw cellulose. The removal of the matrix material (most hemicelluloses and almost all the lignin) led to an increase in the crystallinity and the maintenance of the thermal stability of the cellulose. The functional group elucidation showed that both raw and isolated contained cellulose, the morphology of the cellulose revealed some essential elements that are suitable for good polymer reinforcement composites. The obtained cellulose could serve as a reinforcing material in composite products or as a raw material for other applications.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/768 CHARACTERIZATION OF BEAN HUSK-BASED ADSORBENT 2022-07-04T05:32:19+00:00 K. Abdulsalam khadijatpeju@yahoo.com A. Abolaji khadijatpeju@yahoo.com A. Tiamiyu khadijatpeju@yahoo.com H. Adekoge khadijatpeju@yahoo.com F. Olowosaga khadijatpeju@yahoo.com V. Owolabi khadijatpeju@yahoo.com <p>The discharge of dyes is one of the major water pollution which can cause severe damage to both human beings and animal. Hence, the need for treatment of wastewater containing dyes. This research was aimed at finding out the potential of beans husk as a viable adsorbent for treatment of dye-containing wastewater.The bean husk potential adsorbent was washed, dried and sieved. It was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR), Energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS).The adsorbent prepared has several pores, with functional group like O-H, S-H, C=C and C=O for the bond formation between the adsorbent and the dyes. The carbon and carbon compounds-content of bean husk is very high (100% CK). The bean husk is suitable as an adsorbent for the decolurization of textile wastewater. And has a potential of being effective for wastewater treatment.</p> 2022-07-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/748 EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF EGGSHELL ASH AS PHOTOCATALYST FOR DECOLOURISATION OF AZO DYE USING SOLAR UTRA-VIOLET RADIATION 2022-06-24T07:38:58+00:00 J. O. Osarumwense udeosarumwense@uniben.edu O. Salokun udeosarumwense@uniben.edu C. H. Udoka udeosarumwense@uniben.edu F. Chris-Abey udeosarumwense@uniben.edu <p>Water pollution is one of the environmental challenges to be surmounted to avoid global public health hazard. Due to the complex chemical structure, azo dyes in industrial effluent have a long shelf life and are toxic to aquatic creatures even at low quantities. In this study, the decolourisation of azo dye, methylene blue (MB) using locally sourced photocatalyst, eggshell ash (ESA) under solar ultra-violet (UV) radiation was investigated. In order to test the photo-activities of ESA, a similar study was performed without sunlight. ESA was characterised using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Maximum decolourisation efficiencies (96% with sunlight and 77% without sunlight) were recorded at contact time of 120 minutes and 1.5 g/dm3 of catalyst. The data obtained were fitted into kinetics models and adsorption isotherms. According to the findings, pseudo-second order kinetics model best described the process with rate constant of 0.1529 g/mg.min and regression value, R2 of 0.9934. Intra-particle diffusion model showed that the uptake of MB was more of film diffusion than the intra-particle diffusion. The adsorption isotherm fitted better into Langmuir isotherm with adsorption capacity of 0.0213 dm3/mg and R2 of 0.9957, while the Temkin isotherm indicates that the process was a physical adsorption as the heat of sorption value (0.0015 Kcal./mol.) was less than 1.0 kcal/mol. Generally, the study revealed that ESA was a suitable photocatalyst for the decolourisation of azo dyes under solar UV rays.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/751 PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM MARULA SEED OIL USING EGG SHELL AS HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST 2022-06-24T07:58:25+00:00 C. M. E linge cosmastonton@gmail.com A. O. Ogunleye cosmastonton@gmail.com A.R Ige cosmastonton@gmail.com A. Umar cosmastonton@gmail.com M.A Augie cosmastonton@gmail.com <p>Diminishing fossil fuel resources, coupled with the steady increase in energy consumption, and have spurred research interest in alternative and renewable energy sources. In this research work, oil was extracted from marula seeds using soxhlet extractor and n-hexane as solvent. The extracted oil was characterized via physicochemical analysis then in-situ transesterification of oil with methanol was carried out using eggshell as catalyst. The physic-chemical analysis showed the state of the oil at room temperature to be liquid, the odour was mild, the colour was brown, specific density was 3.46, saponification value was 193.6 ± 0.25, acid value was 8.2 ± 0.4, and iodine value was 100.68 ± 1.0. Biodiesel characterization showed that kinematic viscosity at 40oC was 4.98, cetane number was 64.5, flash point was 159, pour point was - 13, cloud point was 5, and density was 0.85. The prepared eggshell catalyst was characterized using X-ray Fluorescence and was found to be composed of CaO (73.2), MgO (0.2), SiO2 (0.4), SO3 (0.3), P2O5 (0.7), Na2O (0.5), Al2O3 (0.07), K2O (0.03), and Fe2O3 (0.08). This study suggests that marula seed oil can be used as a source of triglycerides in the manufacture of biodiesel by transesterification. The properties of the biodiesel produced showed theoretical compatibility with diesel engines in accordance with the ASTM standard. <br><br></p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/754 EVALUATION OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE FRACTIONATED METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF DIOSPYROS PRUESSII GURKE. 2022-06-24T08:22:07+00:00 V. C. Udeh emmanuel.agboeze@gmail.com E. Agboeze emmanuel.agboeze@gmail.com E. O. Omeje emmanuel.agboeze@gmail.com C. C. Chime emmanuel.agboeze@gmail.com O. C. Ike emmanuel.agboeze@gmail.com <p>The methanolic leaf extract of D. pruessii with documented ethnomedicinal applications was fractionated in different solvents (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) and subjected to phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity against some disease-causing microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative (Staphylococcus aureus, salmonella spp, and Escherichia coli). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Alkaloids, saponins, saponin glycosides, Tannins, hydrolyzable Tannins, steroids and triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, and volatile oils. Each fraction of the extract demonstrated antibacterial activity against all the organisms tested. MIC values of each fraction revealed strong inhibition against all the organisms tested. The methanolic leaf extract of D. Pruessii in chloroform, water, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, and n-butanol showed the following values: Staphylococcus A. 12.5, 25, 50, 12.5, and 12.5. E.coli 12.5, 50, 100, 50 and 100. Salmonella spp 25, 12.5, 50, 50, and 3.125, respectively. The antimicrobial tests were carried out in triplicates, and the data obtained were subjected to one-way ANOVA using a statistical package for social science (SPSS). This study shows that these plants' extract possesses antimicrobial properties that can be used as alternatives to conventional antibiotics.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria