https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/issue/feed Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2022-11-21T11:07:07+00:00 Prof. Joseph Anireju LORI csnjournal@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-top: 0px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria is a bimonthly publication of original research reports in pure and applied chemistry. Among our regulations include</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">1) Manuscript submitted to this journal is not published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere either in parts or whole. 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It is made clear herein that the data and information in the articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Consequently, the Editorial board and their respective staff and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such misleading data and/or information.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">©CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (CSN)</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"><strong> Prof. Joseph Anireju LORI</strong><sub>BSc, MSc, PhD, FCSN, FICCON, FRSC</sub></p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> Editor-in-Chief</p> https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/818 FLAME PHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF POTASSIUM (K) AND SODIUM (Na) IN AGRICULTURAL WASTES: BEANS PODS, GROUNDNUTS AND MELON SHELLS. 2022-11-21T10:52:52+00:00 D. E. Musa ephraim.dallatu@fulokoja.edu.ng U.A. Augustine ephraim.dallatu@fulokoja.edu.ng T.M. Akpomie ephraim.dallatu@fulokoja.edu.ng <p>Agricultural wastes are residues from the growing and first of raw agricultural products such as fruit, vegetables, meat, poultry, dairy product and crops. 100 g each of bean’s shields, groundnuts shields and melons shields were randomly collected from five different locations and labeled A, B, C into polythene bags and taken to the laboratory for analyses. The composite of each five collected samples were formed and analyzed. Moisture content of A: 20.03 ± 0.057 %, B: 10.06 ± 0.111 % and C: 17.16 ± 0.058 %; % ash content of A: 12.03 ± 0.021 %, B: 13.06 ± 0.045 %and C: 20.03 ± 0.057 %; % water soluble ash for A: 25.10 ± 0.100, B: 18.01 ± 0.012 and C: 30.00 ± 0.000 while % alkalinity of A: 34.03 ± 0.021, B: 30.00 ± 0.000 and C: 35.16 ± 0.045. Working standard solutions of potassium, K were prepared and emission intensity in triplicates of each was measured: average emission intensity for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm are 52.86 ± 0.07, 105.76 ± 0.05, 158.73 ± 0.06, 211.56 ± 0.05, 264.46 ± 0.05 respectively and a standard curve for K was plotted. Average emission intensity of K in samples A, B and C solutions were measured as 106.26 ± 0.058, 123.03 ± 0.057 and 134.36 ± 0.058 respectively. These were read up in the K standard curve and extrapolated to determine concentration (ppm) of K in A, B and C: 19.9, 24.5 and 25.7 respectively. On the other hand, working standard solutions of potassium, Na was prepared and emission intensity in triplicates of each was measured: average emission intensity for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm are 24.06 ± 0.058, 48.16 ± 0.058, 72.26 ± 0.058, 96.36 ± 0.058, 120.46 ± 0.058 respectively and a standard curve for Na was plotted. Average emission intensity of Na in samples A, B and C solutions were measured as 38.58 ± 0.052, 30.17 ± 0.051 and 42.36 ± 0.058 respectively. These were read up in the Na standard curve and extrapolated to determine concentration (ppm) of K in A, B and C: 15.4, 13.5 and 20.0 respectively. The results buttress high emission intensity hence, high concentration (ppm) of K and Na in melon shields followed by groundnut shields and beans shields.</p> 2022-11-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/804 DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION FROM MAIZE HUSKS FOR THE REMEDIATION OF SOIL AND WATER POLLUTED BY E-WASTES. CASE STUDY: THE EVACUATED LANDFILL SITE AT OWERRI, IMO STATE, NIGERIA 2022-11-02T10:18:36+00:00 M. C. Enedoh njidenedo@gmail.com <p>A novel and less cost effect remediation strategy was designed to meet the challenges posed by e-waste in parts of Owerri in Imo State of Nigeria. This followed the determination of the levels of contamination of the environment within a recently evacuated landfill site (dumpsite) in Owerri Imo state, Nigeria by the leaching of heavy metals from e-wastes. The analysis was necessitated as people were already settling very close to the site and cultivating plants for human consumption without prior examination of the vicinity and subsequent remediation of the polluted site. The Energy dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and the Pollution Index (PI) were used on randomly collected soil from the evacuated landfill site to obtain first, an overview, then the concentration of heavy metals present in the soil. The following heavy metals from the landfill site were highlighted: Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, As and Fe and the level of the presence of each confirmed. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was also used to determine the concentrations of the heavy metals in a shallow well located very close to the site. The concentration of lead and cadmium were hazardously found to fall above the World Health Organization (2003) standard in both the soil and shallow well. Lead for example was found to be 24.20mg/kg in the soil and 0.230mg/L in the shallow well as against 0.70mg/kg permissible in Nigeria. The lead and cadmium ions apparently leached from everyday electronic materials (e-wastes) dumped in the landfill site as these e-waste materials abound in the said site and area. A research was therefore carried out to assess the removal or reduction of lead(II) ion and Cadmium(II)ion in the polluted shallow well water by some maize wastes - from maize/corn husks biomass. The efficiency of this novel research is high as the biomass part before and after adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra showed that the waste maize part (husks) have available functional groups and as a result, active sites for the adsorption of Cd2+and Pb2+. This research is relevant particularly to all those living around the vicinity and to the Government Scientists who would need to speed up the remediation of the area and create a safe e-waste disposition method.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/807 EVALUATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5 AND PM10) CONCENTRATIONS IN THE DRY AND WET SEASONS AS INDICES OF AIR QUALITY IN ENUGU URBAN, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA 2022-11-02T10:35:17+00:00 C. C. OKUDO chidebelu.okudo.pg81737@unn.edu.ng N. R. EKERE chidebelu.okudo.pg81737@unn.edu.ng C. O. B. OKOYE chidebelu.okudo.pg81737@unn.edu.ng <p>The particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air pollutants emitted from various sources, having adverse effect on human health and environment. The study evaluates the concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 pollution in Enugu Urban. The PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were collected from April 2018 to March 2019 using CASELLA CEL - 712 (Dust Detective). The study area was categorized under, industrial, commercial, high density residential, low density residential areas and control location in a rural area. The annual average concentration were in the ranges 23.06 ± 1.53 to 153.23 ± 28.73 µg/m3 for PM2.5 while the average concentration for PM10 ranged from 37.49 ± 3.75 to 336.49 ± 47.05 µg/m3. The average annual PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in almost all the areas studied are above the WHO limits of PM2.5-25 µg/m3 and PM10 - 50µ/m3. Therefore, the residents of study areas are exposed to inhalable particulate which may have adverse health risk and environmental deterioration. This enrichment may be attributed mostly to human activities. Adequate attention should be given; periodic monitoring and pollution abatement measures must be strictly adhered to.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/810 SPATIO-TEMPORAL OCCURRENCE, SOURCES, AND HUMAN HEALTH RISK OF 16-POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ANTHROPOGENIC VECTORED SOILS 2022-11-02T10:50:02+00:00 O. O. Emoyan emoyanonos@gmail.com E. Ohwo emoyanonos@gmail.com E. E. Akporhonor emoyanonos@gmail.com <p>This study determined the spatiotemporal distribution, sources, and human health hazards of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in land-use soils. PAHs were determined by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Total PAHs concentrations ranged from 125.3 to 2587.16 µgkg-1 showing concentrations in the order of topsoil &lt; subsoil and wet season &gt; dry season. PAHs occurrence exceeded the DPR-EGAPSIN target and intervention value in 33.3% and 11% of the samples. This study established variable concentrations of HPAHs relative to LPAHs with a predominance of carcinogenic 5-ring PAHs. The highest concentrations of total PAHs were at Warri military checkpoint. The cancer risk for infants was higher than for adults, and permissible target values, thus signifying human on-spot exposure risk. The results established that the source of PAHs is pyrogenic and petrogenic low-temperature combustion of petroleum fractions and high-temperature combustion of wood, grass, biomass, diesel, and vehicular traffic particulate emissions. The results demonstrated considerable concentration variation and potential for ecological and human health exposure risks. The results show PAHs exposures risk in military checkpoints and related catchments elsewhere.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/813 THE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COBALT (Co), NICKEL (Ni) AND COPPER (Cu) NITROGEN-DOPED GRAPHENE NANOCOMPOSITES 2022-11-11T10:57:12+00:00 L. Shuaibu lawalkaita2013@gmail.com A. A. Audu lawalkaita2013@gmail.com <p>Nitrogen-doped graphene (NGr) and metal nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposites (MNGr) were synthesized employing chemical reduction method. The synthesized nanocomposites and graphene oxide (GO) were characterized via conventional characterization techniques. UV-Vis spectra of the synthesized metal nanocomposites indicated that cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and (Cu) copper nanoparticles (NPs) exhibited surface plasmon resonance peaks at 515 nm, 230 nm and 770 nm respectively, indicating the formation of the respective metal nanoparticles (MNPs) on NGr. The EDXRF analysis showed that the synthesized nanocomposites of the metals are very pure. SEM indicated the appearance of wrinkles and crumples, confirming the structural morphology of NGr. It also showed the attachment of smaller and white spherically shaped spots with insubstantial aggregation of MNPs on NGr. FTIR analysis showed the C=C stretching frequency in the GO that has shifted to a higher wavenumber from 1632.6-1640 cm- 1, indicating successful reduction of the nanocomposites. XRD analysis revealed the presence of the face-centred cubic crystalline lattices (fcc) for Ni, Co and Cu nanoparticles. The Scherrer equation was used to calculate the mean particle sizes of the MNPs formed on the NGr support.</p> 2022-11-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/816 CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION AND MOBILITY OF HEAVY METALS IN ALLUVIAL FLOODPLAINS OF SOME RIVERS IN EKITI STATE, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA 2022-11-11T11:20:22+00:00 D. O. AKODU yinkaakodu@gmail.com A. F. AIYESANMI yinkaakodu@gmail.com W. B. TOMORI yinkaakodu@gmail.com <p>Floodplains are agro zone for most vegetables worldwide and incidentally they are sinks for pollutants especially heavy metals. The total concentration of metals is not a good indicator of mobility/bioavailability or potential risk assessment hence more preferred elemental geochemical environment. This study is therefore aimed at investigating the geochemical environment of some potentially harmful elements in the agro zone flood plains of some rivers in Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria. Bulked soil samples of 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20-30cmdepth were collected at 5m, 25m and 45m perpendicular distances to the river course. Soil samples were air-dried in the dust free open laboratory, disaggregated, sieved through 2mm BS mesh and sequentially fractionated using Tessier’s method. The result shows that a large proportion of the fractions were found in the non-mobile fractions bound to organic matter (F4)and residual (F5), implying that the metals may not be readily available for plant uptake. The mobility factor for the metals at Irintan floodplain, (Ogbese) Omi-Eye floodplain (Erio) and Egbigbu floodplain (Ayetoro),were respectively in the order Pb&gt;Zn&gt;Cr&gt;Cu&gt;Fe&gt;Cd, Cd&gt;Fe&gt;Cu&gt;Zn&gt;Pb&gt;Cr and Cd&gt;Zn&gt;Cr&gt;Fe&gt;Cu&gt;Pb. This suggests that cadmium has the highest mobility factor at both Omi-Eye and Egbigbu floodplains than other metals. This portends danger as the metal is known to be potentially toxic to ecosystem. It is hereby recommended to regulatory authorities to carry out a more detailed assessment of the floodplains for potentially toxic metals contamination to forestall transfer to human through plant uptake.</p> 2022-11-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/819 HEPATO-PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF Datura stramonium in ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO RATS. 2022-11-21T11:07:07+00:00 E. U. Alum daniel.uti@fuhso.edu.ng G. U. Umoru daniel.uti@fuhso.edu.ng D. E. Uti daniel.uti@fuhso.edu.ng P.M. Aja daniel.uti@fuhso.edu.ng O. P. Ugwu daniel.uti@fuhso.edu.ng O. U. Orji daniel.uti@fuhso.edu.ng B. U. Nwali daniel.uti@fuhso.edu.ng N.N. Ezeani daniel.uti@fuhso.edu.ng N. Edwin daniel.uti@fuhso.edu.ng F. O. Orinya daniel.uti@fuhso.edu.ng <p>The screening of plants as promising natural sources of medicinal agents against several diseases (both metabolic and infectious) is a well establish phenomenon in the scientific community of researchers. In this study,ethanolleaf extract of Datura stramonium (D. stramonium) was investigated for its anti-diabetic properties in diabetic rat model.A total of 36 albino rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (A-F) with each group containing 6 rats each.Groups A – E were induced withalloxanat 100mg/kg body weight via intra-peritoneal route, while Group F, the control group was not induced.For 14 days, rats in groups A, B and C received ethanolic leaf extract of D. stramonium at 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, respectively, Group D (standard control) received 5mg/kg glibenclamide (a standard drug), rats in Group E(negative control) were givenonlynormal saline (0.1 mL) and rats in Group F were neither induced nor treated; they were given water and feedAd libitum. Administration of extract and drug was through oral intubations. The result showed that body weight of diabetic rats treated with doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly (P&lt;0.05) improved after induction at weeks 1 and 2 when compared to the negative control. There was also significant (P&lt;0.05) reduction in blood glucose in treated groups 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg with respect to negative control in diabetic rats. The reductions in plasma glucose levels weredose-dependent. The mean activity of serum AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin of diabetic rats displayed significant difference from those of the normal subjects. Result of this study suggests that ethanol leaf extract of D. stramonium possess antidiabetic potential and does not have harmful effect on the liver.</p> 2022-11-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/805 EVALUATION OF DESULPHURIZATION POTENTIALS OF BARIUM CHLORIDE, CALCIUM HYDROXIDE, SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID ON DIESEL, KEROSENE AND GASOLINE 2022-11-02T10:24:46+00:00 U. Obini obiniemmanuel@gmail.com J. N. Afiukwa obiniemmanuel@gmail.com <p>The sulphur content in refined petroleum products namely diesel (AGO), kerosene (DPK) and gasoline (PMS) obtained from a commercial Filling Station in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State were determined before and after desulphurization with aqueous ionic solutions of NaOH, BaCl2, Ca(OH)2 and HCl using a single beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Genesys 1OS, Thermo-Scientific). Results obtained showed that the amount of sulphur contained in the samples before desulphurization were 1.457, 0.992 and 1.294 mg/L in diesel, kerosene and gasoline respectively. The highest sulphur recovery of 0.676 mg/L (46.4 %), 0.315 mg/L (31.8 %), and 0.555 mg/L (42.9%) in diesel, gasoline and kerosene respectively were obtained with a 10 % w/v solution of NaOH after desulphurization. This was followed by a 10 % w/v solution of BaCl2 which gave 35.0 % and 23.0 % desulphurization in Diesel and gasoline respectively. The performance of Aqueous solutions of Ca(OH)2 and HCl in desulphurizing kerosene and gasoline were relatively low (3.2 %,11.4 % and 15 %, 4.6 % respectively) compared with aqueous NaOH. The results showed appreciable reduction in sulphur content of the samples with NaOH exhibiting the highest desulphurization potential in all the samples assayed. Thus these ionic solutions possess the potential to extract sulphur compounds in petroleum products.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/808 PHYTOCHEMICALS, MINERAL, ANTI-MICROBIAL ANALYSIS AND FTIR STUDY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS (ETHANOL, ETHYL ACETATE AND HEXANE) OF Ficus exasperate LEAF (SANDPAPER LEAF) 2022-11-02T10:40:59+00:00 F. S. OLUWOLE oluwolefolorunsho@gmail.com S. O. JAJI oluwolefolorunsho@gmail.com T. S. AIYELERO oluwolefolorunsho@gmail.com G. A. OLAGBAYE oluwolefolorunsho@gmail.com A. A. EJIRE oluwolefolorunsho@gmail.com O.O ELEYOWO oluwolefolorunsho@gmail.com <p>Ficus exasperate is a small tree well known on account of its very rough leaves being used as paper widely spread in all eco-regions of Nigeria. The plant has been ethno botanically reported to have diverse medicinal uses. It is used in herbal medicine to treat cough, hemorrhoid and lowering high blood pressure. Ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of this plant were obtained by maceration and tested for antimicrobial activity using agar diffusion and micro broth method dilution techniques. However, Phytochemicals screening of the hexane extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycoside, steroid, legal test, alkaline reagent and phenol in Sandpaper with no traces of tannins and reducing sugar. The ethyl acetate extract revealed that all test was presence except from the Alkaline reagent and reducing sugar, while the ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, steroid, legal test, cardiac glycoside and phenols without traces of alkaloids, alkaline reagent and flavonoids. The Sandpaper exhibited a wide range of activity on Ethanol, N-haxane and Ethyl acetate extracts at concentration of 5.075, 1.665 and 3.09g respectively. The above results show that F. exasperata leaf contained bioactive substances with the highest inhibitory activities against some human pathogenic organisms. This study justifies the ethno pharmacological uses of these medicinal plants for treatment of microbial infections.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/811 ANTI-CORROSIVE POTENTIALS OF NAPHTHO-QUINONE/NAPHTHA-ALDEHYDE SCHIFF BASES FOR MILD STEEL IN HCL MEDIUM: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND DFT STUDIES 2022-11-02T11:01:25+00:00 T. C. Wodi chidebestokwu80@gmail.com C. Festus chidebestokwu80@gmail.com E. Nlemonwu chidebestokwu80@gmail.com <p>The corrosion inhibition of four ligands; L1, L2, L3 and L4 synthesized through reflux condensation, and characterized via spectroscopic methods were examined using weight loss measurements and Density Functional Theory(DFT). Factors like ligand’s chemical structure, immersion time, concentration, and temperature which affect efficiency of corrosion inhibition were evaluated. The experimental results revealed declined weight losses from 0.02-0.004g, 0.06-0.00625g and 0.11450- 0.06938g at 303K, 333K, and 363K temperature for concentration increase from 100-500ppm. The increase in weight loss arose from temperature (303-363K) increase. Obtained data denotes declined corrosion rate in the presence of the inhibitors in the acid solutions but decreased as the inhibition concentration increased at each temperature. The highest inhibition efficiency (%ᶯwL) for the ligands at 303K, 333K and 363K temperatures and 500 ppm concentration were observed as 89.39% (L3), 88.36% (L2) and 55.00% (L2) respectively. The exceptional inhibition proficiency of the ligands could be due to the availability of heteroatoms and aromatic rings with π-electrons within their structures. The increase in %ᶯwL for 5 hours immersion was in the order L2&lt;L4&lt;L1&lt;L3, L1&lt;L3&lt;L4&lt;L2 and L3&lt;L1&lt;L4&lt;L2 at 303K, 333K, and 363K temperature respectively with L3 having the highest %ᶯwL at 89.39% at 303K. The desorption process of the ligands upon the mild steel surface (mss) followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The ∆Gads values acquired were amid -18.1709 to -35.6765KJ mol-1 suggestive of adsorption of the studied inhibitors on mss been physisorption. Chemical calculations and molecular descriptors of dipole moment(μ), energy gap, EHOMO, and ELUMO were acquired via B3LYP level with 6-31G (d, p) basis, while global reactivity descriptors; global softness(S), global hardness(η), electrophilicity index(ω) were derive and analyze using Koopman’s theorem. The ligands were found to be in good agreement with both experimental and theoretical results. The L3 ligand had the highest EHOMO value of - 8.4696567 denoting greater inhibition potency and conforming to the result obtained from corrosion %ᶯwL. The structural assemblages of the ligands were confirmed using spectroscopic and analytical methods.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/814 DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH ENERGY AND FUEL ECONOMY CERAMIC INSULATED BIOMASS MULTI COOKING SYSTEM 2022-11-11T11:07:50+00:00 U. E. EKPUNOBI EKPUNOBInnnnn@gmail.com C. C. ONYENZE EKPUNOBInnnnn@gmail.com S. C. AGBO EKPUNOBInnnnn@gmail.com P. UMENNADI EKPUNOBInnnnn@gmail.com O. B. IFEAGWU EKPUNOBInnnnn@gmail.com <p>The analysis of Inyi clay and its utilization in the production of an improved cook-stove is significant to the existence of mankind and his community. This study was carried out to analyse the mixture of clay, cassava peel and grog and its utilization in the production of an improved cook-stove. The clay deposits were collected from Inyi Local Government, Enugu State. Different ratios of the mixture was used in the following percentage proportions by weight of clay to cassava peel to grog: A (40:40:20), B (40:30:30), C (40:20:40), D (40:10:50) at firing temperatures 900oC and 1000oC. The physical analysis (apparent porosity, linear shrinkage, dry-fired shrinkage, total shrinkage, bulk density, water absorption and percentage making moisture) was carried out using rectangular shape test piece to ascertain the feasibility in the lightweight stove production, the strength and the durability of products. The chemical analysis (xrd and xrf) was carried out using x-ray diffractometer and x-ray fluorescence in order to determine their crystallographic parameters and elemental composition respectively. The morphological analysis (SEM) was carried out using the scanning electrode microscope to obtain the resolutions and magnifications. The addition of cassava peel and grog was found to have great effect on the insulating properties (shrinkage, bulk density, apparent porosity and water absorption) of the clay. Chemical analysis revealed SiO2 (45.26%) and Al2O3 (35.19%) as major constituent. The result of this study showed that cassava peel was suitable in enhancing the insulating properties of Inyi clay and can be utilized to induce insulation in clay minerals when desired.</p> 2022-11-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/817 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WILDLIFE GEOPHAGIC SOIL: A PRELIMINARYASSESSMENT FOR POSSIBLE UTILIZATION IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES 2022-11-21T10:42:54+00:00 R. O. Adewale adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng E. O. Philip adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng O. B. Banjo adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng O. A. Oguntade adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng B. R. Odebiyi adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng O. A. Akinsorotan adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng O. A. Odusanya adewale.rilwan@oouagoiwoye.edu.ng <p>The act of consuming soil (geophagy) has been reported both in man and wildlife. Most previous studies have concentrated more on various type of geophagic soilswith less attention on termite mounds (TMs), thus limiting our understanding the cause(s) of geophagy. This study investigated the physico-chemical constituents of wildlife geophagic TMsincomparison with non-geophagic forest soil (FS). Composite soil samples were collected each from four different TMs and a FS. Samples were analyzed for pH, texture, electrical conductivity (EC), water retention capacity (WRC), moisture content (MC) and colour.Soils were analyzed in triplicates following standard methods. Datagenerated were analyzed statisticallywith SPSS version 17.Theresult indicated acidic pH for both TMs(strongly to slightly acidic) and FS (slightly acidic). Clay content, EC, WRC and MC were significantly higher in TMs than FS.The colour of TMs ranged from reddish brown(4R 4/5) to dark brown (2.5R 5/7 or 5R 6/8) as against that of FS which was black (2R 2/4). Wildlife may be consuming TMs in preference to FS for; detoxification (high clay content), ant-diarrhea (high WRC and MC), Fe-supplement (brown colour of TMs) and dissolved salt content (high EC). Detailed studies intomineralogical and microbiological compositions of TMs may be needed to further justify the rolesof geophagy in wildlife.</p> 2022-11-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/806 RISK ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS LEVEL IN SOILS AND FOOD CROPS AROUND A CERAMICS COMPANY IN AJAOKUTA, KOGI STATE, NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA 2022-11-02T10:29:17+00:00 J. E. Emurotu udrotu@yahoo.com E. Azike udrotu@yahoo.com <p>Some metals associated with ceramics emission were determined in agricultural soil and leaves of maize and cassava around the vicinity of a major ceramic company. These metals are released during production process into the environment. Soil samples were collected at depth of 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm at certain distance (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m). Leaves of maize and cassava were collected around the soil samples area. Samples were collected to make a composite of 24 for both soil and leaves of crops respectively. Soil and plant digest were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Result showed the range of metal (mg/kg) in topsoil Cd (1.00-8.25), Mn (3.75-62.0), Ni (11.0-46.3) and Pb (5.50-101.2). Corresponding value in subsoil was not significantly different (p&gt;0.05). The concentration of Mn in leaves of cassava is of concern especially if it will be used in the formulation of animal feed. The geo-accumulation (Igeo) of metals in soil revealed that the soil is slightly polluted. Uptake of metals into crops was low except Mn in cassava leaves. A health risk index (HRI) value for the food crops was &lt;1 except for Mn were HRI&gt;1 for cassava. Overall food crop consumption of the study area does not pose a potential threat at the moment.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/809 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIMICROBIAL ASSESSMENT, AND ISOLATION OF A NOVEL BIOACTIVE FRIEDELANE-TYPE TRITERPENOID FROM THE STEMBARK EXTRACTS OF Uapaca ambanjensis Leandri. 2022-11-02T10:45:59+00:00 G. C. O. OKAFOR okafor@bazeuniversity.edu.ng A. O. OYEWALE okafor@bazeuniversity.edu.ng J. D. HABILA okafor@bazeuniversity.edu.ng M. A. AKPEMI okafor@bazeuniversity.edu.ng <p>The hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Uapaca ambanjensis were investigated for their phytochemical constituents and activity against selected microorganisms. Whereas all the phytochemicals, except anthraquinones, are indicated in various extracts, the most impressive antimicrobial potencies of extracts compared to standard drugs were observed for methanol (against Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans), n-hexane (against Staphylococcus aureus, C. albicans, S. typhi and Klebisiela pneumoniae) and ethyl acetate (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Chromatographic separation and purification of the methanol extract led to the isolation of compound 1 (labelled G24) which upon characterization using 1D and 2D NMR was elucidated to be a novel friedelane–type pentacyclic triterpenoid, 2β-propanoyloxy-friedelan-3-one. In vitro antimicrobial screening of the new compound showed that it has both gram-positive and gram-negative antibacterial, and antifungal potencies with the strongest activities against P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. It is most likely a medicinal principle or antibiotic with activity against ailments for which the stated microbes are implicated, and may also account for the ethnomedicinal uses of the crude plant extract to treat typhoid fever, other fevers, skin diseases and stroke.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/812 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE PLANT EXTRACT OF Hemizygia welwitschii 2022-11-02T11:06:49+00:00 Z. B. Abdullahi zulaihatabdul@gmail.com B. Garba zulaihatabdul@gmail.com C.E Gimba zulaihatabdul@gmail.com <p>Studies in this paper is focused on investigating the antimicrobial activity of the leaves extract of Hemizygia welwitschii plant. The chemical constituent of the extract was determined via phytochemical analysis. Thereafter, the antimicrobial screening of the extract was carried out on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using Mueller Hinton agar method. The outcome of the phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of saponins (4.4 g), steroids (174 mg/100g), flavonoids (14.2 g), tannins (511 mg/100g), Phenol (2.04 mg/g), alkaloid (9.8 g) and anthroaquinones (3.6 g) in the extracts. Also, the result of the antimicrobial screening showed that the extract is more active against Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. Significant Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus was observed at a concentration of 500 mg/ml. Thus, the continued use of the extract in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus related diseases should be encouraged.</p> 2022-11-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/815 CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF GULLIES OF NANKA AND OKO IN ANAMBRA STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA 2022-11-11T11:14:17+00:00 O. N. N. Okoye ookoye94@yahoo.com F. O. Ugbede ookoye94@yahoo.com C. C. Oli ookoye94@yahoo.com V. I. Onwukeme ookoye94@yahoo.com S. U. Onwuka ookoye94@yahoo.com <p>This study investigated the use 2 mL solution each of AlCl3, CaCl2, Ca(OH)2, MgCl2 and CaCO3 chemicals in stabilizing 10 g and 15 g each of two the gullies in Nanka and Oko towns; and tested with a pocket penetrometer to find out the unconfined compressive strength (UCS). The soil particle size distribution (PSD) were determined also, before treating with the chemical solution. The result from PSD showed that the soil samples had high level of sand in both of them, and low clay content. Also, the stabilizing effects of the chemicals show that AlCl3, CaCl2 and MgCl2 had the highest stabilizing strength on both samples, while CaCO3, Ca(OH)2 showed a low strength. <br>Keyword: Gullies, Erosion, Soil, Stabilization, Penetrometer, Chemical</p> 2022-11-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria