Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-top: 0px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria is a bi-annual publication of original research reports in pure and applied chemistry. Among our regulations include</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">1) Manuscript submitted to this journal is not published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere either in parts or whole. Again the author agrees that the copyright for his article is totally transferred to the Editorial Board of this Journal once the said article is accepted for publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">2) Authors that work for organizations must obtain the written consent of their employer(s) prior to this publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">3) By this agreement, the organization surrenders its copyright to this journal.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">4) No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form without the permission in writing from the copyright holder.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">While the Editorial Board makes every effort to ensure that no misleading information or statement appears in this journal. It is made clear herein that the data and information in the articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Consequently, the Editorial board and their respective staff and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such misleading data and/or information.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">©CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (CSN)</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> <strong style="box-sizing: border-box; font-weight: bolder;">Prof. A.K. Akinlabi</strong></p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> Editor-in-Chief</p> Chemical Society of Nigeria en-US Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 0795-2066 One-Step conversion of high FFA Crude Karanja oil (Pongamia pinnata) to Bio-diesel Using Portland cement as excellent heterogeneous catalyst https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/568 <p>Heterogeneous catalyst was prepared from Portland cement. The prepared heterogeneous catalyst was tested for catalytic activity in the transesterification of non-edible, high free fatty acid feedstock, such as crude karanja oil (CKO), for biodiesel production, at methanol reflux temperature. Gas chromatographic (Gc) analysis technique was used to determine the fatty acid methyl ester yield. The preparation of heterogeneous catalyst from low-cost sources, and the use of non-edible feedstock, only at methanol reflux temperature, were all aimed at reducing the cost of biodiesel production. Insight into the catalytic activities of catalyst was obtained by characterizations for their textural properties, using Brunnear-Emmet-Teller (BET) analysis technique, surface scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive x-ray (EDX) for microstructure, surface morphology and chemical composition; x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy for structural and functional groups analyses, respectively. Differential thermal and thermogavimetric (DTA/TGA) analyses were performed to determine the proper temperature ranges for the dehydration, decomposition, desorption and oxidation of sample via the TGA curves and their melting points and changes in crystal structures via the DTA curves, for effective determination of calcination temperature. The application of Portland Cement-derived heterogeneous catalyst in the transesterification reaction revealed excellent activity in the transesterification of crude karanja oil, with excellent fatty acid methyl ester yield of over 97.87 %. Operational conditions such as methanol/oil mole ratio (1:3 - 18), catalyst loading (3 - 9 % by wt) and reaction time (0.5 – 7 hours), were investigated to obtain the optimum reaction conditions for the feedstock, while the reaction temperature was kept constant at methanol reflux temperature, to minimise cost of production, in line with the objective of this investigation. Calcined heterogeneous catalysts gave over 80% fatty acid methyl ester yields than the raw counterpart, which were attributed to changes in crystal structures and phases of catalysts, observed in the characterization of catalysts, after calcination. Keywords: Portland cement, heterogeneous catalyst, Crude Karanja oil, transesterification reaction, Feedstock</p> M. O. Ekeoma P. A. C. Okoye V.I.E .Ajiwe B. H. Hameed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.568 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF TWO COCOS NUCIFERA FRUITS. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/572 <p>A quantitative analysis of two species of coconut fruit aimed at determining the levels of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, iodine, iron, phosphorus, zinc, calcium, fats, protein, vitamin A and C were carried out using standard methods. The results show that the alkaloid content was 0.6% and 1.1%, saponins (0.2% and 2.8%), tannins (0.5% and 3.0%), flavonoids (0.03% and 0.01%), iodine (7.40mgI/g and 6.30mgI/g), iron (3.47ppm and 5.00ppm), zinc (0.97ppm and 0.76ppm), phosphorus (1.15ppm and 1.26ppm) and calcium (5.66ppm and 7.17ppm). Others were include vitamin A (61.55mg/kg and 147.40mg/kg), vitamin C (5.24mg/kg and 7.84mg/kg), fat (16.0% and 9.0%) and protein (4.8% and 1.1%). The study shows that the samples contain phytonutrients in varying proportions and therefore highly recommended for human consumption.</p> A. B. C. Nzekwe F. N. Nzekwe Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.572 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF THE HEXANE EXTRACT FROM ACANTHOSPERMUM HISPIDUM (whole plant) https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/575 <p>Although Acanthospermum hispidum has long been considered as a competitive invasive weed of agricultural plantations, it has recently become a sought after raw material to manufacture syrups in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis and fever. In the present study, the bioactive components of Acanthospermum hispidium entire plant have been accessed via GC-MS analysis. Six compounds from the hexane extract of the whole plant were identified. The most prevalent are glycerine (100.00%), 1-benzoypiperidine (40.26%) and erythritol (15.79%). Phytochemical screening investigation carried out using standard procedures showed the presence of Alkaloids, Steriods, Saponnins, Tannin, Flavonoids, Phenol, Terpenoids.</p> Akoh, O. U Mac-Kalunta O. M Emewusim, C. M Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.575 UTILIZATION OF BINARY BLENDS OF LIQUID NATURAL RUBBER AND POLYVINYL ACETATE IN EMULSION PAINT https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/578 <p>Studies were conducted on blends of liquid natural rubber (LNR) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc).The two polymers were characterized based on their physicochemical properties, and used in paint production. Results obtained showed that viscometric measurement and density of the polymers did not differ much. Five paints of different compositions labeled; Paint 1 (100% PVAc), Paint 2 (100% LNR), Paint 3 (75% LNR: 25% PVAc), Paint 4 (50% PVAc: 50% LNR), and Paint 5 (25% LNR: 75% PVAc) using standard emulsion paint formulation and method of production were employed. The paint samples were subjected to quality test. Most of the emulsion paint showed good quality test when compared by the Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON). Paint 1 had an excellent viscosity and adhesion when compared with Paint 2 and other samples. Also, Paint 5 recorded 22.0poise for viscosity and 0.68kgf for adhesion when compared with other paint blends. This shows that, emulsion paint formulated blends of LNR/PVAc with percentage composition 25% LNR; 75%PVAc exhibited best performance characteristics in terms of test conducted. The results suggest that LNR and PVAc are compatible as binders in emulsion paint production. Therefore, LNR/PVAc blends could be used as binder in the coating industry as an alternative to PVAc binder based emulsion paint.</p> H.C. Ndibe J. U. Iyasele E.O. Imanah G. E. Okpara I. Eriamiatoe Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.578 EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF COCONUT OIL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN ALBINO RATS https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/581 <p>Coconut oil from coconut kernel is a source of natural cooking oil for most people in tropical countries. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of coconut oil on some biochemical, haematological and histological parameters in albino rats. Two phases of experiment with four groups of male albino rats each consisting of five rats weighing about 180 – 200 g were used for this study. Phase 1 of the experiment involves feeding of albino rats with commercial rodent chow mixed with coconut oil, coconut oil supplemented diet (COSD) while phase 2 experimental rats were treated with coconut oil orally. Group 1 served as the control for both phases of treatment, groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated with 3 ml/kg, 6 ml/kg and 12 ml/kg of COSD and coconut oil respectively for 4 weeks. Result of both phases of experiment showed significant increase (p≤0.05) in serum concentrations of AST, ALP and ALT levels. Also, the result showed that the levels of urea and creatinine decreased significantly when compared with the control group. Haematological results showed that levels of haemoglobin and PCV for both phases of treatment decreased significantly (p≤0.05) compared with the control group. Total protein for COSD treatment phase showed a significant increase while total protein for coconut oil (CO) oral administration treatment phase decreased significantly for only group 4 albino rats when compared with control. Histopathological results showed normal liver hepatocytes in the treated albino rats except for some albino rats with microvesicular steatosis. This study has also shown that coconut oil within the dosage administered cause mild inflammation of the liver in some of the albino rats.</p> F. A. James N. Boisa N. Nwachoko O. S. Bull Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.581 Human health risk assessment of trace metals contamination in a tropical river https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/584 <p>Levels of trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) were quantified in water, sediment and winkles (Pachymelania bryonensis and Pachymelania fusca mutans) in Akani Obio Uruan River, Nigeria during wet and dry seasons using standard procedures. Results revealed that mean levels (mg/l) of the metals in water ranged from 0.016 for Cr to 0.087 for Cd in wet season and 0.010 for Cu to 0.082 for Zn in dry season. In sediment, the metals levels (mg/kg) ranged from 0.002 for Pb to 0.161 for Zn in wet season and 0.001 for Pb to 0.438 for Cu in dry season. In winkles, the metals levels (mg/kg) ranged from 0.002 for Pb to 0.069 for Cd and for Cu in the wet season, and 0.001 for Pb to 0.058 for Cd and for Cu in the dry season. Estimated human health risk from each metal contamination due to consumption of the water, dermal absorption through swimming and consumption of winkles gave each of hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) values of less than one (&lt; 1), indicating no risk since the levels of contamination in each case are not likely to cause any adverse health effects in humans.</p> E. I. Uwah E. M. Edem I. E. Udosen E. D. Udosen O. M. Udoidiong A. M. Essien Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.584 Spectrometric Determination of Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Copper and Iron in Drinking Water Samples Across Kogi State, Nigeria. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/588 <p>The aim of the study was to determine the levels of lead, cadmium, arsenic copper and iron in 25 water samples collected from across Kogi State. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used in the determination of copper, iron, lead and cadmium while UV-visible spectrophotometer was employed in the determination of arsenic, based on the formation of Molybdoarsenate. The ranges of mean values obtained for the heavy metals are: Arsenic (0.0014to 0.0252 mg/L), Copper (0.0013to 0.0095 mg/L), Lead (0.0001to 0.024 mg/L), Cadmium (0.003 to 0.072 mg/L) and Iron (0.0068 to 0.1242 mg/L). The results revealed that the River, Stream and Tap water sampled were contaminated with Arsenic (As), whereas, the levels of Fe, Cu and Pb were within the recommended limit set by WHO and NAFDAC. Though the level of cadmium (Cd) falls within acceptable limit in some of water samples, its high concentration in Isanlu should attract the attention of the authority in this area in curbing the growing threat.</p> D. M. Ocheni Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.588 Proximate Analysis, Vitamins, Moisture Content and Mineral Elements Determination in Leaves of Solanum erianthum and Glyphaea brevis https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/566 <p>Nigeria is solitary of the richest floristic region of Africa continent and have been a resource of plants and their yields used predominantly as food or as medicine for centuries. The study involves the qualitative and quantity assay of the proximate composition using standard methods, elemental determination using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and vitamin content using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The result of proximate composition showed appreciable amount of crude fibre (9.56%; 29.17%), carbohydrate (33.00%; 28.50%), crude protein (13.55%; 10.07%), ash (19.23%; 9.14%) and crude fat (2.79%; 9.03%) for Solanum erianthum and Glyphae brevis respectively. Similarly, the leaves recorded high values of these elements: potassium (124.77±0.83; 101.54±0.58 mg/100g), magnesium (77.24±0.24; 69.95±0.24 mg/100g), iron (13.11±0.26; 11.74±0.25 mg/100g) respectively. Vitamins A, B (1, 2, 3, 6&amp;12), C&amp;E were detected. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) had the highest concentration (232.75±1.25 mg/L; 166.25±1.25 mg/L) and B2 (riboflavin) the lowest (0.037±0.00 mg/L; 0.032±0.00mg/L) respectively for Solanum erianthum and Glyphae brevis. The study revealed that the two plants (Solanum erianthum and Glyphae brevis) could be a good source of food and medicine.</p> N.M. Uzoekwe M.E. Ukhun P.P. Ejidike Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.566 ELEMENTAL AND MINERAL VARIATION OF AMENDED SOIL FOR PALM SEEDLING GROWTH https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/570 <p>Palm oil mill sludge (POMS) is generated in great amount in Nigeria and often regarded as pollutant and waste material. This study is aimed at utilizing POMS for growing oil palm seedlings. The POMS was naturally stabilized for 25, 50, 75 and 100 days. Four different treatments (POMS: Soil ratio) were performed to evaluate the effect of stabilization on the growth of oil palm seedlings. It was found that the stabilization period has great influence on the nutrient parameters of the soil which led to a corresponding growth of the oil palm seedlings. It was found that the percentage of Nitrogen and Phosphorus increased from 0.19 % at day zero to 0.51 % at day 100 and 0.12 % at day zero to 0.36 % at day 100 respectively. The C:N ratios of the POMS gradually decrease with increase in the stabilization period, from 44.71 at day zero to 12.92 at day 100. The level of metals in the POMS ranged from 0.52 – 0.59, 0.34 – 0.40, 6.23 – 7.02 and 3.98 – 4.34 meq/100 g of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium respectively. The levels of these metals were not greatly affected by the stabilization period. There was a gradual increase in the height of the plant as the stabilization period increased. 100 days stabilized POMS was found to have the highest plant height of 66.20 cm at 15 % amendment. Application of POMS in agricultural practices may offer a sustainable option in managing pam oil mill sludge.</p> Osa- Iguehide J. M. Okuo B. Anegbe B. M. Babalola J. Aigbogun Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.570 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF 2 - (PHENYL SULFONYL) AMINO PYRIDINE. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/573 <p>The synthesis of 2-(phenylsulfonyl)amino pyridine is reported. This was achieved by sulfonylation of 2-aminopyridine using benzenesulfonyl chloride in alkaline medium while employing water as solvent. The structure of the synthesized compound was elucidated using the Ultra Violet, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra data obtained. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compound was tested on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi using agar well diffusion method to establish the inhibition zone diameter for these microbes. The result of inhibition zone diameter obtained showed that the synthesized compound inhibited the growth of the test organisms and so have potential as an antimicrobial agent</p> A.O. IJEOMAH M.C. TSEEKA Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.573 ISOLATION OF DIHYDROQUERCETIN GLYCOSIDE FROM THE ROOT BARK OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA AND ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC SCREENING OF THE CRUDE EXTRACTS. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/576 <p>The root bark of Calotropis procera (Family: Asclepiadaceae) was extracted with methanol. The methanolic extract was separated into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water soluble fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation and final purification was achieved by column chromatography. The structure of the compound was elucidated by spectroscopic methods (ESI-MS, 1H and C NMR, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and the comparison of the data obtained with that reported in the literature. It was concluded that the compounds isolated was taxifolin 4’-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, a dihydroquercetin glycoside. The crude extracts of hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, and water soluble fractions of methanol extract and the isolated compound were subjected to antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The result shows that the maximum inhibitions in the DPPH assays were isolated compound (51.7 %), methanol (80.7 %), and water (29.2 %) fractions while ascorbic acid standard was (84.4 %). However, the results for hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions in the DPPH assays were poor and hence discarded. The results for the in vitro cytotoxicity activity shows that ethyl acetate and hexane fractions showed significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 1.0±0.2 and 2.4 ±0.1 respectively.&nbsp;</p> A. Usman R.H. Mohammad A.O. Abdullahi A.H. Zakari N.L. Usman Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.576 EFFECT OF WATER ACIDITY ON THE LEACHING OF FERTILIZER COMPONENTS IN UMUAHIA AGRICULTURAL SOILS https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/579 <p>The South-Eastern Nigeria has heavy annual rainfall and at riskof leaching by acid rain hence there is a strong need to study the acidity of the leaching water from this zone as to determine it’s effect on the fertilizer components applied to the soil as soil and water pH affect nutrient retention. The study was therefore conducted to determine the effect of the acidity of water on the leaching of fertilizer components on application to agricultural soils in Umuahia one of the cities in the South-East. Agricultural soil was collected from Umudike in Umuahia and designated as Umuahia Agricultural Soil(UAS).The soil was characterized to determine texture, gravel, pH, organic matter and carbon, exchangeable acidity and cations, available phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium and percentage nitrogen using their various methods of analysis. The characterization was followed by the leaching tube experiments whereby the soil samples were leached with carbonated water of different pH levels ranging from pH of 4 to 6.5 and also with rainwater with pH of 6.8 using ten tubes five with fertilizer and five without fertilizer which served as the control experiment. The leachates were collected and analysed for the concentrations of sodium,potassium,calcium and the other ions . The results of the textural classification showed the soil as sandy-clay, and that of physicochemical analysis showed organic matter and carbon as 3.82 ± 0.13 and 2.21±0.00 % respectively, nitrogen as 0.26 ± 0.11 %. The leaching tube experiment showed sodium ions as 0.19 ± 0.11 me/100g, 0.19 ± 1.10 me/100g, 0.28± 1.02 me/100g, 0.29 ±0.11 me/100g and 0.38 ±0.12 me/100g at pH of 4, 5, 6, 6.5 and rain respectively for soils with fertilizer while that of potassium ions showed 3.76 ±0.02 me/100g, 3.61 0.02 me/100g, 3.54 0.02 me/100g at pH of 5, 6 and 6.5 respectively. The soils without fertilizer showed 0.09 ± 0.01 me/100g for both Na+ and K+ at the different pH levels. Soils with fertilizers leached more ions than the soils without fertilizers. From the results, it could be inferred that the leaching of fertilizer components in the soils differed with the influence of the acidity of leaching water. Therefore, fertilizer application should be based on the acidity level of the leaching water or rain.</p> N. M. Mgbemena F. U. Okwunodulu Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.579 PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF BIODIESEL FROM PALM FATTY ACID DISTILLATE AND OLEIC ACID USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY APPROACH. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/582 <p>In this study, a mixed feed of Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD)/ oleic acid was used to produced biodiesel catalyzed by sulfonated carbon. The effect of three process variables i.e. methanol - to –PFAD/oleic acid molar ratio, catalyst loading and reaction time on the yield of biodiesel produced was studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design (BBD). Optimum reaction conditions were obtained at 1:7 methanol- to-PFAD/oleic acid molar ratio, 15 wt.% catalyst loading and 5h reaction time. The predicted biodiesel yield was 96% under the optimal conditions. From the results obtained, it can be deduced that PFAD/ oleic acid has a high potential as an inedible feedstock to produce low cost biodiesel, and the method may be useful for industrial process optimization.</p> U, A. Maryam G. A Maspalma J. M Manu M. B Hamid Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.582 H ALIDE ION AND METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF IRVINGIA GABONESIS AS AN E NHANCED CORROSION INHIBITORY AGENT ON ALUMINIUM IN HCl https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/585 <p>The in hibitory efficiencies of methanolic leaf extract of Irvingia gabonensis and the role of a halide ion as an enhancement on the inhibition of aluminium corrosion in HCl medium were studied at varying acid concentrations of 0.01M , 0.05M, 0.1M und er the influence of 3% NaCl. Result of the studies carried out by weight loss techni que showed that I. gabonensis is highly an efficient inhibitor for the corrosion of al umimium in HCl acid environment and its inhibitory efficiencies increases with respect to the time of exposure.. It was observed from the study that in the absence o f the plant extracts, the weight loss increases rapidly indicating an increase in corrosi on rate from 0.003g to 0.026g as acid concentration was increased from 0.01M to 0.1M . Conversely, when the plant extract was introduced, there were remarkable decrease in weight loss from 0.001g at 0.01M of HCl to 0.021g at 0.1M , showing a decrea se in corrosion of the metal. Experimental data proved that the highest corrosion rates w ere observed at the highest acid strength pointing that at a concentration of 0.1M H Cl, 19% efficiency was attained and a maximum efficiency of 67% was obtained at 0.01MHCl showing a correlation between concentration and inhibition of metal. It was also revealed that the inhibitory efficiency of I. gabonensis in HCl medium was magnif icently increased when a salt of halide ion was introduced showing a weight loss of 0.01g through 0.003g as acid strength increased from 0.01M to 0.1M. This could be attributed to that the fact that halide ion facilitates the adsorption of organic cat ions during metal corrosion by forming intermediate bridges between the metal surface and the positive end of the organic inhibitor and this forms a protective hydrophi lic film on the metal surface which provided a barrier to the dissolution of the metal into the acid medium.</p> C.O.L UBANI F.C NWADIRE O.U IGWE A. BILAR . A. AGUNANNE Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.585 Phytochemical and Antioxidant Capability of Vitex doniana (Black Plum) Fruit https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/589 <p>The search for more nutritionally active sources among forest products has called for the analysis of the phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of Vitex doniana (black plum) sweet fruit. Although, Vitex doniana sweet fruit had been known to be very useful among people across tropical Africa and beyond, but there is lack of adequate data on its phytochemical and antioxidant composition. The fresh fruits of Vitex doniana sweet were collected from several randomly selected trees in a farm site in Uromi metropolis, Esan North-East Local Government Area of Edo state and then processed into an extract in form of syrup. The phytochemical and antioxidant profile of Vitex doniana sweet fruit were investigated to ascertain its health benefits. The antioxidant activity was done by measuring the scavenging effect of the fruit and ascorbic acid on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The scavenging ability of the fruit showed a concentration-dependent activity profile. It increased with an increase in concentrations. The IC50 value of the fruit was found to be 245.8 µg/mL and that of ascorbic acid 2.175 µg/mL, indicating that the fruit has very little antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid (control). The study also revealed that the fruit contains tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids.</p> C. Imoisi J.U. Iyasele E.E. Imhontu U.R. Orji S.A. Okhale Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-06 2021-02-06 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.589 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition of two Wild Plants used as Medicine in Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/567 <p>Medicinal plants have been used to treat certain disease conditions for centuries. Thus, fatty acids and amino acids composition of leaves of two wild (glyphae brevis and solanum erianthum) plants used for herbal treatment of some diseases were analysed. The results showed presence of numerous saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in both plants. The following fatty acids: alpha linolenic acid C18:3 (26.532%; 25.110%), gamma linolenic acid C- 18:3 (25.561%; 26.145%), palmitic acid C16:0 (22.422%; 22.534%) and linolenic acid C18:2(17.108%; 17.058%) were found in relatively higher amount for glyphae brevis and solanum erianthum respectively. The study also revealed that the two plants contain numerous essential and non-essential amino acids. In glyphae brevis, glutamate was found to occur in relatively higher concentration (14.465mg/g), followed by aspartate (10.65mg/g), alanine (6.2937mg/g). serine (4.3310mg/g), glycine (4.2118mg/g) etc. For essential amino acids, lysine (9.702mg/g), leucine (8.9831 mg/g) and arginine (6.5526mg/g) were present. Other amino acids were found in insignificant quantities. The concentrations of essential amino acids ranged between 4.6484 mg/g to 1.1150 mg/g. Similarly, the non-essential amino acid content of Solanum erianthum ranged between 14.4624 mg/g to 1.5827 mg/g recorded for glutamate and cysteine respectively. Furthermore, the essential amino acids content ranged between 7.7231 mg/g to 1.0375 mg/g, measured for leucine and tryptophan respectively. The two wild plants were found to contain numerous fatty acids and amino acids and hence their efficacy in traditional therapeutic purposes. <br><br></p> N.M. Uzoekwe M.E. Ukhun Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.567 THE USE OF NATURAL CROSS LINKERS IN MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMER TECHNOLOGY- PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/571 <p>Cross linkers are basic anchor component of molecularly imprinted polymer matrices. Popularly used cross linkers are of synthetic origin and inherently possess unwanted characteristic attributes despite their advantaged ease of synthesis and specificity in reactivity.Cross-linkers significantly increases the viscosity of linear gel by increasing the molecular weight of the base polymer through linking multiple molecules together, it increases molecular weight without additional polymers. One of the disadvantages of cross-linkers is the potential increase in friction pressure of the polymer.This review x-rays the source availability of natural alternative cross linkers, their chemistry and application preferences, as well as their projected utility potentials. Keywords: Cross linkers, molecularly imprinted polymers,</p> O. Ofoegbu N. Umah E. Akor Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.571 ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING, VITAMIN ASSAY AND GCMS ANALYSIS OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF Azadirachta Indica (NEEM) LEAVE. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/574 <p>Azadirachta Indica (Neem) plays a pivotal role in various problems associated with human health. Azadirachta indica is a member of maliaceae family and every part of the Neem tree has some medicinal potential which makes it of great demand in our world today. The plant parts such as leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, fever, infection, dental disorder and skin diseases. The present study aims at identifying and characterizing the different bioactive compound from chloroform neem extract by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) in addition to the study of the antimicrobial potency as well as the vitamin content of neem leaves. Antimicrobial result revealed that chloroform extract of Azadirachta indica has a strong antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria strain (Salmonella spp, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogene). Result of vitamin content showed that the vitamin contents are in this order C &gt; B1 &gt; B2 &gt; E. GC-MS analysis revealed presence of 32 compounds. Among the 32 compounds, the most predominate compounds are fatty acids, esters, oleic acid, hydrocarbons, alcohols, aromatics, alkamides, cyanides, steroids, halo compounds, pyrazine, isothiocyanate, thiocyanate, urea and unsaturated alkenamides, alkyne, indol and N-hydroxyimine.</p> O. U Akoh O. M Mac-Kalunta O.K Amadi J1 Ekwerike Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.574 UTILIZATION OF WATER YAM (Dioscorea alata) AS A SOURCE OF ETHANOL https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/577 <p>Ethanol (C2H5OH) is a primary alcohol which can be produced by fermentation, using any of the sources of carbohydrates such as sugarcane, cassava, grains and yam tubers among others. Production of ethanol fermented from renewable sources for fuel and fuel additives are known as bioethanol. Since the need of bioethanol is increasing, the production of bioethanol must be increased using cheaper and eco friendly raw materials. This study was conducted, using cheaper and eco friendly raw materials; water yam (Dioscorea alata) as alternative sources for ethanol production. The starch that was produced from water yam was hydrolysed into fermentable sugar, using acid hydrolysis. The fermentable sugar was converted into ethanol by fermentation process at pH 4.5 using fermenting brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces calsbergensis). Starch, glucose and ethanol which were obtained were analysed for physicochemical properties. Findings revealed that the starch sample obtained gave a blue-black colouration on addition of few drops of iodine solution. This confirmed that the carbohydrate content was mainly starch. On calculation of viability, findings further showed that water yam is a good raw material for production of ethanol, therefore indigenous production of ethanol obtained from water yam is economically viable and recommended. This will save the country from lot of money spends annually on the importation of ethanol and it can also provide job opportunity for many wandering and unemployed Nigerians.</p> A.M. Hashimi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.577 ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF SELECTED METALS IN THREE TYPES OF BOILED EGG ALBUMEN AND WINES. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/580 <p>Three species of egg from (poultry foul, native foul and guinea fowl) and wines (red and green). were assessed for the present of selected metal, (dietry essential elements). constituent with respect to there co-enzymes activities in relation to scavanging and chain radical properties, using standard methods. The results of the analysis shows, Fe: range between 1.039±0.01mg/l - 16.501±0.02mg/l, Cu: range between 0.019±0.01mg/l -- 0.116±0.01mg/l, Zn: range between 0.241±0.01mg/l --- 0.575±0.02mg/l and Se: were not detected, and the red wine has values; Cu: 0.01±0.01mg/l, Fe: 0.01±0.01mg/l and the green wine with all the selected metals were not detectable. The I R spectrum indicated five peaks for red wine and three peaks for green wine and both reveal, the present of 0 ----H, &gt; C = 0 and N – H functional group and it indicate, the present of ester, phenols and alcohol with the resvertriol and selantonin characteristics, that are polyphenols and antioxidants. In conclusion, the present of these transition elements, polyphenols and serotinin indicate the antioxidant properties of these samples and therefore their, consumption should be encouraged, and that, the fowls feed should be supplemented with food containing Cu, Se, Zn and Fe, and the wines during production which, must be within the maximum allowable limit, because of there healthy functional important benefits in the area of healing,and resistance to diseases and cancer.</p> O.G. Owoeye Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.580 Effect of dry eye diseases on the level of Protein and Lipids in Tears of Postmenopausal Women. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/583 <p>The study is aimed at investigating the effect of dry eye disease on the level of protein and lipids in tears of postmenopausal women. The study was carried out on 33 postmenopausal women with dry eye symptoms and 22 postmenopausal women that were asymptomatic. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire classified participants as being symptomatic or asymptomatic of dry eye. Tear stability and tear volume were assessed with Fluorescein Tear Break up Time (FBUT) and Schirmer’s test respectively. Tears were analysed for protein (total protein, albumin, and globulin) and lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides). The mean total protein for Dry Eye (DE) was higher than that for Non-dry eye (NDE). Albumin and globulin were also higher for the DE group when compared to the NDE group. These were however, not statistically significant (p &gt; 0.05). There was also no significant difference in triglycerides and cholesterol between DE and NDE. There was no significant correlation between clinical signs (tear volume and tear breakup time) and total protein, albumin, globulin cholesterol and triglycerides in the NDE and DE eye groups. The study shows that proteins and lipids do not change in postmenopausal women irrespective of the presences of dry eye disease.</p> A.O. Shuaibu G. A. Akinlabi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.583 The Influence of Sodium Benzoate on the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Fuchsin: Inhibition Study https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/587 <p>Kinetics of alkaline hydrolysis of Fuchsin in the absence and presence of sodium benzoate was investigated at 546.5 nm by pseudo first order kinetics. The reaction was found to be first order each in [Fuchsin] and [NaOH] in the presence and absence of sodium benzoate. Double reciprocal plot indicates the presence of an intermediate complex in the course of the reaction. Activation parameters were obtained from Erying’s equation as ΔH# 24.70 kJmol-1, ΔS# -0.193 kJK-1mol-1 and ΔG# 82.21 kJ mol-1 in the absence of sodium benzoate and ΔH# 27.59 kJmol-1, ΔS# -0.185 kJ K-1mol-1 and ΔG# 82.72 kJ mol-1in the presence of sodium benzoate. Sodium benzoate plays an inhibitory role in the hydrolysis reaction. The values of the change in Gibb’s free energy of activation shows same mechanism for the hydrolytic reaction in the presence and absence of sodium benzoate. A plausible mechanism is proposed. Keywords: Sodium benzoate, Fuchsin, NaOH, rate law, mechanism</p> D. F Latona A.E Akinola Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.587 EXPLORATION OF INTERCALATED KAOLINITE CLAY FOR THE UPTAKE OF BASIC DYE BY ADSORPTION − EQUILIBRIUM, KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/590 <p>Dyes are complex and sensitive organic chemicals which exposes microbial populations, aquatic lives and other living organisms to its toxic effects if their presence in water bodies or industrial effluents are not properly handled. This work therefore, comparatively studied the adsorption efficiencies of natural raw kaolinite (NRK) clay adsorbent and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) faciley intercalated kaolinite clay (DIK) adsorbent for batch adsorption of Basis Red 2 (BR2) dye. The impact of varying the contact time, temperature and other operating variables on adsorption was also considered. The two adsorbents were characterized using SEM images, FTIR and XRD patterns. Linear and non-linear regression analysis of different isotherm and kinetic models were used to describe the appropriate fits to the experimental data. Error analysis equations were also used to measure the goodness-of-fit. Langmuir isotherm model best described the adsorption as being monolayer on homogenous surfaces while Kinetic studies showed that Elovich model provides the best fit to experimental data. The adsorption capacities of NRK and DIK adsorbents for the uptake of BR2 were 16.30 mg/g and 32.81 mg/g, respectively (linear regression) and 19.30 mg/g and 30.81 mg/g, respectively (non-linear regression). The thermodynamic parameter, ∆G showed that BR2 dye adsorption onto the adsorbents were spontaneous. DIK adsorbent was twice efficient compared with NRK for the uptake of BR2 dye.</p> C. E. Chigbundu K. O. Adebowale Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 2021-02-06 2021-02-06 46 1 10.46602/jcsn.v46i1.590