Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-top: 0px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria is a bimonthly publication of original research reports in pure and applied chemistry. Among our regulations include</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">1) Manuscript submitted to this journal is not published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere either in parts or whole. Again the author agrees that the copyright for his article is totally transferred to the Editorial Board of this Journal once the said article is accepted for publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">2) Authors that work for organizations must obtain the written consent of their employer(s) prior to this publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">3) By this agreement, the organization surrenders its copyright to this journal.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">4) No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form without the permission in writing from the copyright holder.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">While the Editorial Board makes every effort to ensure that no misleading information or statement appears in this journal. It is made clear herein that the data and information in the articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Consequently, the Editorial board and their respective staff and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such misleading data and/or information.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">©CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (CSN)</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"><strong> Prof. Joseph Anireju LORI</strong><sub>BSc, MSc, PhD, FCSN, FICCON, FRSC</sub></p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> Editor-in-Chief</p> en-US csnjournal@gmail.com (Prof. Joseph Anireju LORI) webmaster@chemsociety.org.ng (webmaster) Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES OF Launaea (Lactuca) taraxacifolia. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/737 <p>Launaea (Lactuca) taraxacifolia also known as wild (African) lettuce is anethno-pharmacologically significant plant of the Asteraceae family. The plant was carefully chosen for this study due to its extensive use in traditional herbal practices to treat a wide range of ailments. The extraction of the leaves for phytochemical screening was carried out by subjecting the air dried pulverized plant materials into trichloromethane, normal hexane, ethyl ethanoate and methanol solvents for a period of some days, followed by filtration and concentration. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the extracts of the above solvents revealed the presence of saponins, phenols, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, tannins, plant steroids and flavonoids. Quantitative analysis of the phytochemicals showed that saponins occurred withthe greatest concentration of 4.26 ± 0.08 %, followed by cardiac glycosides with a concentration of 2.27 ± 0.02 %; while phenols had the least concentration of 0.13 ± 0.01%. The proximate analysis was carried out using the dried leaves and the results obtained revealed the presence of crude protein (38.40 ± 1.20 %), crude fibre (1.565 ± 0.08 %), crude fat (4.60 ± 0.04 %), crude ash (5.02 ± 0.070 %), moisture (14.91 ± 0.50) and available carbohydrates (35.50 ± 1.26 %). The calorific value of the leaves in gram per calories was estimated to be 337 ± 0.70. The extraction, purification, concentration, phytochemical screening and nutritional analysis were carried out at Post-graduates, chemistry and bio-chemistry laboratories, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.</p> B. C. Anyanwu, O. U. Akoh, I. E. Otuokere Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/737 Fri, 06 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 BIOSYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ACANTHUS MONTANUS LEAVES EXTRACT https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/717 <p>The tremendous application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the various scientific fields has rendered its synthesis to be largely significant in the scientific community. Interestingly, plant-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles appears sustainable over the conventional synthetic method as a result of the cheap, safe, fast, and clean outcome. This study, for the first time, investigates the potential of Acanthus montanus leaves extract as a biological reducing agent capable of synthesizing AgNPs. Qualitative phytochemical investigation of A. montanus methanolic leaves extract was studied and AgNPs were prepared at different concentrations, using the green-synthetic method. Obtained AgNPs were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results of the qualitative phytochemical studies revealed the presence of important phytochemicals. After 6 hours, the reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the observed colour change from light yellow to dark/reddish brown. The UV-visible spectrum showed a characteristic surface plasmon resonance at 450 nm while XRD analysis revealed crystalline AgNPs. Microscopic investigation of A. montanus-synthesized AgNPs with SEM showed a non-uniform morphology including spheres and wires. EDS analysis confirmed the presence of elemental silver in abundance. For the first time, A. montanus leaves extract was employed in the synthesis of AgNPs and our results have proven its effectiveness as an interesting bioreducing agent required for the synthesis of clean and non-toxic AgNPs.</p> O. B. Akinsipo, T. O. Mustapha, A. N. Adams Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/717 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 INDUSTRIAL IMPACT ON SELECTED HEAVY METALS IN ECONOMIC FISH WITHIN THE RIVER IN NNEWI-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ANAMBRA STATE NIGERIA https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/721 <p>This work was carried out to research on the Industrial impact of selected heavy metals in economic fish samples in Eze river of Nnewi-North, Anambra State, Nigeria. The levels of seven heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Cd) in selected fish samples (Clariasgariepinus, Oreochromisneloticus, Pseudotolithus elongates) from the area were detected using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique. The HN03-HCl method was used in the fish sample digestion. All the fish samples collected from the Eze river contained the six heavy metals analyzed. The mean concentrations(µg/g) of heavy metals in the fish samples from the studied area were 1.85 for Pb, 0.86 for Mn, 3.38 for Zn, 1.18 for Cr, 2.84 for Cu and 0.43 for Cd. With the exception of Pb and Cd most metals were within the acceptable levels in the fish. The target hazard quotient (THQ) and the hazard index (HI) values were evaluated in order to assess the health risk of the inhabitants of Nnewi-north and environs due to heavy metal intake from food crops. The values were less than 1 in all the fish samples; therefore, their consumption does not pose any health risk concern. Metal-metal correlation was carried out using Pearson’s product moments. Most elemental pairs show significant correlation with each other, this implies that each paired element has common pollution sources. In conclusion, the investigated area has been affected by the industrial activities. So control measures stated by regulatory authorities should be enforced in all the industries.</p> P. O. Akannam, S. A. Adedeji Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/721 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ADSORPTION BEHAVIOUR OF METHYLENE BLUE DYE ON EGGSHELL EXTRACTED CHITOSAN AND CARBONIZED DATE-PITS AS ADSORBENTS https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/725 <p>The use of low-cost, locally available and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive and inefficient methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of Eggshell extracted chitosan and Carbonized Date-Pits as adsorbents in removing methylene blue dye. Effects of adsorption dosage and concentration of adsorbents were equally investigated. Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms were used to model the experimental data. It was found that the highest removal of dyes from aqueous solution with a percentage removal of 70% was recorded using eggshell extracted chitosan while at same concentration (5 mg/L of dye solution), carbonized date-pits removed 48.98% of the dye. From the results obtained, equally found was that the adsorption processes of methylene blue dye on eggshell extracted chitosan fits reasonably well into Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm with the R2 value 0.9502 and 0.9904 respectively. While using carbonized date-pits, the Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm R2 values were 0.934 and 0.046 respectively which indicates that it only fits reasonably well into Langmuir Isotherm. The result shows that both waste materials can effectively be used as adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue dye from wastewater. However, eggshell extracted chitosan gave the best fit for the adsorption processes.</p> S.A. Kolawole, H. Tijjani-Garba, A.O. Omoniyi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/725 Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OPTIMIZATION OF REACTION CONDITIONS FOR BIO-OIL PRODUCTION FROM PYROLYSIS OF CORNCOBS https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/728 <p>The reaction conditions for pyrolysis of corncobs was investigated for improved bio-oil yield. The corncobs were first demineralized to reduce inorganics composition using various solvents; nitric acid, acetic acid and water for a number of days. The effect of temperature, catalyst load and retention time were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) of central composite design matrix (CCD). Three levels of the parameters were studied using face centered approach. The optimal bio-oil yield of 20 % was obtained at 6000C temperature, 7 wt. % catalyst load, and 3-hour retention time. A model equation was generated using the data obtained and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed the model to be significant with an R2 of 0.9505. From the statistical analysis, the predicted bio-oil yields were closely related to the experimental bio-oil yields indicating that the model was accurate to be used for design and optimization of bio-oil yield from pyrolysis of corn cobs.</p> M. T. Abatyough, V. O. Ajibola, E. B. Agbaji, Z. I. Yashim Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/728 Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RISK EVALUATION OF DOMESTIC SOURCES OF WATER IN SELECTED LEAD MINING COMMUNITIES OF NASARAWA STATE, NORTH CENTRAL, NIGERIA https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/700 <p>Mining activities is one of the causals of water pollution in recent times that could potentiate a great risk to human who depends on these water sources for domestic uses in Adudu, Abuni and Kanje mining communities of Nasarawa State. This research aimed to determine the quantity of radionuclides viz 238U, 232Th and 40K in surface and groundwater samples of these communities. The concentrations of the radionuclides were measured using Gamma-ray spectroscopy and the radiological hazard indices such as Radium Equivalent (Raeq), Dose Rate (DR), Annual Effective Dose Equivalent (AEDE), Hazard Index (Hi), Representative Radioactivity (Iy) and Excessive Life Cancer Risk (ELCR) were evaluated and used to analyze the data. 238U was found in 12 out of the 27 analyzed water samples with their concentrations within the WHO standard. The concentration of 232Th found in the sampled water sources were higher than the recommended limit except for samples B5 and S2. However, 40K was found in most water samples analyzed although the concentration was below the authorized standard. The evaluated radiological health hazard parameters (Raeq, DR, AEDE, AEDE, HI, Iy and ELCR) were generally below world average and WHO standard values for domestic water. Thus, this study showed that the concentrations of radionuclides in these sources of water pose no radiological health risk to the community dwellers and the presence of the radionuclides are due to the geologic and mineral composition of the study area rather than mining activities.</p> J. C. Onwuka, E. E. Jasper, D. A. Egyegbola Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/700 Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF DEXTRIN ONTO CONCENTRATED NATURAL RUBBER FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BABY FEEDER TEAT. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/735 <p>In this work, dextrin was copolymerized with Concentrated Natural Rubber Latex (CNRL) to produce a polymeric product (Baby feeder teat) which is a dipping good. The chemical method of grafting was implored, and benzoyl peroxide was used as the initiator. The coagulant method of dipping was used in the production of the baby feeder teat. The effect of concentration of dextrin (A = 5.0 %, B = 7.5 %, C = 10.0 % and D = 12.5 %) was investigated by observing the mechanical properties such as weight, elongation at break and thickness of the samples. Also, comparison was made between samples produced from CNRL and grafted natural rubber latex (GNRL). The results for weight were: CNRL=1.992, GNRL A=2.427, GNRL B=2.560, GNRL C=2.594, GNRL D=3.313 while % elongation was 802.85%, 871.43%, 1000%, 1005% and 1100% for Pure NRL, Grafted sample A, B, C and D respectively. The thickness results: CNRL= 1.30 mm, 0.93 mm, 0.72 mm; GNRL A=1.44 mm, 1.15 mm, 0.91 mm; GNRL B= 1.67 mm, 1.45 mm, 1.34 mm; GNRL C=1.75 mm, 1.50 mm, 1.48 mm and GNRL D=1.84 mm, 1 73 mm, 169 mm) showed increase in the GNRL when compared to the CNRL as well as corresponding increase in GNRL with increased concentrations. From the results, it is obvious that the presence of dextrin in CNRL enhanced the properties of CNRL.</p> R. A. Maduagwu, E. T. Omotade, M. K. David Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/735 Wed, 04 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE MODIFIED IRON FILINGS FOR THE REMOVAL OF NAPHTHOL-AS DYE POLLUTANT FROM AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENT https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/740 <p>This study investigates the removal of naphthol-AS dye from aqueous solutions by SDS-modified adsorbents under various experimental conditions. Results imply that the adsorption process was highly pH-dependent and optimum pH for adsorption occurred at 6.0, having maximum removal efficiency of 91 %. Adsorption of Naphthol-AS on the adsorbent fitted better into the second order kinetic model and maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 4.803mg g−1. Equilibrium isotherms were best described by Langmuir isotherm with high-correlation coefficient value. The results of the study infer that SDS-modified iron filing is a promising adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater.</p> C. M Ngwu, C. Odih, A. A. Ahuchaogu, S. M Ufearoh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/740 Sat, 07 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OXALATE-CALCIUM RATIOS OF COMMON CEREALS CONSUMED IN EASTERN NIGERIA https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/719 <p>The importance of Oxalate content of an individual plant in limiting total dietary calcium availability is of significance when the ratio oxalic to calcium (oxa:cal.) is greater than one. Food with oxal: cal ratio greater than two, have no utilizable calcium and contain excess oxalate while foodstuff with oxal:cal. of about one provides little calcium but do not inhibit the utilization of calcium provided by other products. The study analysed three commonly consumed cereals of oxalic acids and calcium by rigorous classical quantitative method of precipitation/titration and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The result should oxal:cal. ratios&gt;1 for all the cereals indicating that the cereals have no utilizable calcium, thus contain excess oxalate which not only complex the calcium contained in the food but also that derived from other food sources eaten together with it. This can result in deficiency of such an essential mineral as calcium in the body and even render the body prone to bone diseases and possibility of developing kidney stones due to calcium oxalate formation (calcium oxalate being the most common component of kidney stone).</p> V. U. Oguezi, F.C. Ibekwe, E.O. Ngbed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/719 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ALPHA AND BETA AMYRINS FROM PROPOLIS OBTAINED FROM BENUE STATE https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/723 <p>Chemical composition of propolis has been reported to be phyto-geographical in nature. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize chemical compounds from hexane and ethyl acetate extract of propolis obtained from Gboko. To isolate compounds, extract was subjected to column chromatography by gradient elution using two solvent mixtures - hexane: ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate: methanol. The structure of the isolated compound was established using 1H-NMR and further verification of data on the compound by comparison with literature reports. α-amyrin, β-amyrin, α-amyrin acetate and β-amyrin acetate, known pharmacologically active pentacyclic triterpenoids, were isolated from the hexane and ethyl acetate extract of this propolis.</p> S. S. Ipav, J. O. Igoli, T. A. Tor-Anyiin, J. V. Anyam Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/723 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF UREA ADDITION ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM THE CO-DIGESTION OF RICE STRAW AND PIGGERY DUNG https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/726 <p>The anaerobic co-digestion of Rice straw (RS) and Piggery dung (PD) at initial Total Solid (TS) loading of 10% was studied. This paper has investigated the effect of supplementing this co-digestion of RS and CD at with urea with an objective of reducing pH as well as improving biogas yield. These experiments were also carried out at different substrate mixing ratios of RS-CD 1:1 and RS-CD 1:2. The anaerobic digestion was carried out in a digester designed and fabricated locally with retention time of between 40 days and 60 days. Results show that addition of 1g of urea improved the maximum Biogas Yield of RS-PD 1:1 by 17.7% and RS-PD 1:2 by 23.4%. Further experiments with 0.5g, 1.5g and 2g of urea added to a co-digestion of RS-CD 1:1 produced a Cumulative Gas Yield of 75 L/Kg, 85.2 L/Kg and 76 L/Kg respectively. Experiments also showed that increasing urea concentration also leads to an increased methane content of the biogas produced.</p> I. J. Ona, N. Surma, H. O. Agogo, M. S. Iorungwa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/726 Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PHYTOCHEMICALS CONTENTS, ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS AND BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF Rauvolfia serpentina LEAVE (EWE OWURO) https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/729 <p>Traditionally, Rauvolfia serpentina leaves have been used as a febrifuge and as an antidote against the bites of poisonous snake and insect stings. It is also used to treat dysentery, painful infections of the intestinal canal, uterine contraction and to promote expulsion of fetus.The R. Serpentina leaves were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard methods, elemental analysis was conducted using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry)and GC-MS was used for the qualitative and quantitative detection of the bioactive compounds. The results showed that flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycoside, legal test, alkaline and reducing sugar were present while steroids and phenols were absent. AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) analysis in mg/kg showed the presence of calcium (32.00mg/kg), iron (184.75mg/kg),magnesium (101.24 mg/kg) and zinc (538.22mg/kg) respectively.The GC-MS result revealed about 128 compounds of pharmacological importance of which notably 23 of these compounds show a concentration of 0.5% peak areas (5000 ppm) and above. The different bioactive phytochemicals identified in this hexanoic extract of Rauvolfia serpentina include Steroids, terpene and terpenoid, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and Vitamin E.</p> F. S. Oluwole, O. A DAMAZIO, S. O. Jaji, T. S. Aiyelero, G. A. Olagbaye, A. A. Ejire Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/729 Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 STUDIES ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF NATURAL RUBBER COMPOSITES FILLED WITH CLAY AND CORN COB https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/733 <p>The mechanical properties of materials such as natural rubber composites determine their usefulness as engineering or biological materials. The thermodynamic properties of natural rubber composites filled with clay and corn cob at varying volume fraction of filler were studied with a view of relating and comparing thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) to mechanical properties (Young’s modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break, etc) of natural rubber composites. The rubber composites were prepared using a standard compounding recipe. The tension observed for each rubber composite as a result of changes in temperature was used in evaluating thermodynamic parameters via Arrhenius equation and plot. These properties have been evaluated by measuring the thermodynamic parameters of natural rubber composites compounded with varying percent volume fractions (5% - 25%) of two fillers- clay and corn cob. The results indicated that the maximum values of ΔG and ΔH was obtained for corn cob filled composites at 10% volume fraction, while the optimal values of ΔS for the same composites was found to be at 5% and 25% volume fraction. At lower filler concentration (5 – 17.5%), corn cob filled composites were observed to have higher modulus than clay filled rubber composites, while at these concentration ranges, clay was found to impact higher tensile strength to natural rubber than corn cob filler.</p> J. O. Arawande, G. O. Orodepo, W. B. Osungbemiro Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/733 Wed, 04 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PRELIMINARY aTOXICOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF ENTADA PURSAETHA SEED OIL https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/736 <p>High density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) are collectively referred as lipids; their levels could be modified by the type and amount of oil in human diet. In this study, Entada pursaetha seed oil (EPO) was evaluated for its toxicity status in order to determine its suitability/potential for human diet. Oil from E. pursaetha seeds used for this study was extracted with n-hexane. Fifteen wistar rats, distributed into three groups of five rats each, were fed with groundnut oil diet (positive control group), EPO diet (test group) and normal rat diet (control group) for eight weeks after which the animals were sacrificed. During the study period, clinical observation of the rats were noted, body weight of the rats was taken on a weekly basis while haematological analysis of the blood and histopathological evaluation of the heart of the rats were carried out at the end of the study. Clinical observation of the rats revealed that the rats did not show any untoward signs throughout the study period. Body weight increase of the rats was found to be steady and no mortality of any of the rats was recorded for all the groups. There was no significant difference in the haematological analysis result for the blood of the rats in the test and control groups and none of them was anaemic; this is nutritionally significant. The result of the histopathological analysis of the heart of the rats for total cholesterol and triglyceride indicated that rats fed with EPO had higher total cholesterol and triglyceride than the control group rats. EPO seemingly has potential of serving nutritional purposes but must be subjected to refining before this can probably be possible. It can however find very wide application industrially.&nbsp;</p> I. A. Ajayi, O. E. Adejumo, V. O. Taiwo Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/736 Wed, 04 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS STATUS IN OSARA DAM https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/718 <p>Environmental risk assessment and water quality management are becoming increasingly important issues, particularly in view of the large number of contaminants entering the aquatic environment that are harmful to the functioning of an ecosystem. Interest in metals like Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn, which are required for metabolic activities in organisms, lies in the narrow "window" between their essentiality and toxicity. Other heavy metals like Cd, Hg, Cr and Pb may exhibit extreme toxicity even at low levels under certain conditions, thus necessitating regular monitoring of sensitive aquatic environments. The study determines the heavy metal concentrations of water from Osara dam in Kogi central area, as well as their sediments and edible parts of two fish species using ICP-OES. Water samples were collected from eight selected sampling sites from Osara dam. There results were below or within the range of the recommended limit of WHO and other recognized regulatory bodies. Similarly, the head, gills, muscle, and liver of the two fishes sample collected from Osara dams were found to contain all the analysed heavy metals (Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Hg) at different levels. Some of the determine metals in the parts of the fishes may not be harmful to consumers because the observed values of heavy metals were below the permissible limits issued by WHO and other recognized regulatory bodies for human consumption however, elements like Cr, Ni and Pb call for serious concerned. Finally, Pearson’s correlation at 95% confidence levels of significance was calculated for finding relationship between elements content in water and fish sample. Significantly positive and negative correlation was observed between different elements in water and fish samples.&nbsp;</p> S. Kabiru, G. L. Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/718 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION IN RICE AT DADINKOWA DAM BASIN GOMBE STATE https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/720 <p>Heavy metals accumulations at Dam basin originated from mining sites through erosion and water transportations find themselves in a soil, water bodies and plants contaminated soil through their roots and those that settle on the plants get in to the plants and animals organs. This study explored the concentration of these heavy metals levels present in rice grown at vicinity of the Dam, which were compared with their [1] maximum recommendation levels safer for human ingesting. Some proximate analysis of the rice investigated showed mean crude fiber = 0.82%, crude fats = 2.81%, and crude protein = 1.12%. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy was adopted for the determination of the heavy metals concentrations showed Fe =0.00670 mg/kg; Zn= 0.0065402 mg/kg then Ni = 0.006224 mg/kg. Others Cd =0.005308 mg/kg, Pb = 0.005254 mg/kg, Mn = 0.001212 kg/mg, Co = 0.0010084 mg/kg, As = 0.0000665 mg/kg, Cu = 0.0000696 mg/kg, Se = 0.0000042 mg/kg. Their concentrations were expressed in decreasing order of Fe &gt; Zn &gt; Ni &gt; Cd &gt; Pb &gt; Mn &gt; Co &gt; As &gt; Cu &gt; Se respectively. The result obtained showed all the heavy metals were within the value of 0.001- 0.005 mg/kg except Zn and Ni. Thus rice grown at Dadinkowa dam basin were only contaminated with excess Zn and Ni high concentrations. Constant utilization of rice grown there can be harmful to health of humans and the ecosystem</p> Y. M Usman, S. Abubakar, M.D. Abdullahi, A.B. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/720 Fri, 29 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS OF HEAVY METALS IN SOIL FROM THE VICINITY OF A KAOLIN MILLING PLANT IN ALKALERI BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/724 <p>This study concerns the health risk assessments of soil from the vicinity of a Kaolin milling plant in Alkaleri, Bauchi State. The aim is to determine the concentration of elements and the health risk assessments of heavy metals in the soil in the Kaolin milling plant. Soil samples were collected from twelve (12) sampling points from the vicinity of the milling plant using hand auger at the depth of 0 – 15 cm. The elemental analysis of the soil samples was carried out using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Pb and Zn were determined using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer after digestion with a mixture of HCl and HNO3 in 1:3 ratios. The results showed the concentration of heavy metals in mg/kg were As = 0.581±0.49, Cd = 0.445±0.74, Cr = 59.64±40.12, Co = 2.84±1.08, Cu = 6.78±13.9, Mn = 138.6±27.9, Pb = 11.36±2.98, V= 28.54±4.96, and Zn = 95.42±32.24. The health risk assessment was carried out using the method developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The health risk assessment showed the daily exposure doses of heavy metals are in the order of Mn &gt; Zn &gt; Cr &gt; V &gt; Pb &gt; Cu &gt; Co &gt; As &gt; Cd for the three pathways. The exposure pathways trend decreases in the order Ingestion &gt; dermal &gt; inhalation. The hazard index (HI) of heavy metals in soil for non-carcinogenic effect is in the order Cr &gt; Co &gt; V &gt; Pb &gt; As &gt; Mn &gt; Cd &gt; Zn &gt; Cu, the HIt is far less than 1 which is the safe value. The cancer risk index (RI) of the metals for carcinogenic effect in the soil from the vicinity of the kaolin milling plant through the inhalation pathway is in the order Cr &gt; Co &gt; As &gt; Cd, also within the safe value of 10–6 – 10–4. These indicate that the soil in the vicinity of the Kaolin milling plant does not pose a major adverse health effect.</p> A.O. Abdullahi, A.B. Mohammed, L.A. Madaki Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/724 Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE USE OF Amaranthus spinosus IN THE SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN THE DETECTION OF GLUCOSE https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/727 <p>Because of biologically active plant secondary metabolites that aid in green synthesis, as well as their specific biological applications, biosynthesized nanoparticles are gaining popularity. This paper describes the electrochemical characteristics and electrocatalytic activity of silver nanoparticles made using Amaranthus spinosus aqueous leaf extract for glucose detection. In the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, an aqueous leaf extract of Amaranthus spinosus was utilized as a reducing and capping agent. UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray studies were used to characterize the biosynthesized Amaranthus spinosus silver nanoparticles. The electrochemical properties reveal the redox process of Ag+ to Ag0, while the electrocatalytic activity towards nonenzymatic glucose oxidation occurs at a lower positive potential, 200 mV, implying that the silver nanoparticles synthesized by Amaranthus spinosus could be used as a candidate for glucose detection.</p> S. A. Mamuru, M. T. Malachy, A.E. Eseyin, G. Ankwai Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/727 Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF NATURAL RUBBER MEMBRANES FOR SUSTAINED TRANSDERMAL DRUG RELEASE APPLICATIONS https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/730 <p>The improvement in the style of drug release and increase in the demand for biomaterials that continuously release substances of pharmacological interest is on the increase in medicinal chemistry. Natural rubber is a polymeric material that is readily available with an exceptional matrix-forming feature which makes it suitable for controlling drug delivery system. Natural rubber latex was obtained from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, with exceptional matrix forming features needed for this research. This study developed an exceptional matrix-forming feature and sustainable system of delivery of phytochemicals with natural rubber latex matrix serving as the base for the transdermal patches. Natural rubber latex was centrifuged at 8000 rpm to remove the leachable protein. The modified natural rubber latex and phytochemicals were polymerized at –10, 15, 35, 50 °C. The biomembrane was characterised using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy and ImageJ. From the results of the size distribution, the number of pores in the biomembranes and the overall morphology of the biomembranes depend on the temperature of polymerisation. Results confirmed that the polymerized biomembrane at –10°C was the best system for drug-delivery for phytochemicals. The bioactive compound (phytochemicals) and matrix did not interact chemically as revealed by FTIR analysis. Only 32% of all integrated extracts were released within 72 hours in the biomembrane for the phytochemical. The average pore sizes also decreased as the temperature of polymerization increased. ImageJ analysis revealed that the average pores of phytochemical biomembranes polymerized at -10, 15, 35, and 50 oC were 4.54, 3.24, 1.23 and 0.58 μm respectively. The images from the SEM showed a bioactive portion on the surface of the matrix, which was responsible for the fast release. Similarly, some bioactive portions were observed in the matrix which was the cause of the slow release. The antioxidant activities of the bioactive substances were sustained even when they have been integrated into the matrix. The results confirmed that the biomembranes produced have shown effectiveness as a model in the release of bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) for transdermal purposes.</p> N. Y. Ilesanmi, A. K. Akinlabi, F. Y. Falope, A. M. Mosaku, A. A. Falomo, G. Oladipo, S. Oni Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/730 Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATION OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL AT ELECTRONICS REPAIR WORKSHOPS IN BENIN, NIGERIA. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/734 <p>Soil samples were collected using grid method from several electronic repair workshops in Benin City, a control (TS) which was from a site with no electronic repair activity and a DTS thirty meters away from the workshops at a depth of 0-15cm. The physiochemical properties were carried out using standard methods. Heavy metals were determined using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), while the sequential extraction was carried out using the European community Bureau of Reference (BCR) method. The results of the physiochemical properties are as follows; 5.9 to 6.5 for pH, 150±0.71 to 342±1.34 µs/cm for EC, 2.1±0.29 to 6.9±0.87 for O.M, 6.3±0.35 to 14.2±0.35 mg/kg for TOC, 157.6±0.44 to 217.9±0.45 mg/kg for CEC, 08.3±0.50 to 13.3±1.93 mg/kg for SO42-, 08.5±1.30 to 16.1±2.00 mg/kg for NO3-, and 7.7±1.41 - 14.7±2.10 mg/kg for PO43-. The concentration for Fe, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu are respectively; 321.3 to 514.3 mg/kg, 1.78 to 6.17 mg/kg, 0.59 to 1.05 mg/kg, 6.4 to 23.12 mg/kg, 35.81 to 41.38 mg/kg and 28.88 to 44.35 mg/kg. From the results, the metals concentrations were higher in soils from the electronic repair work shops (TS) compared to those soil samples that were 30m away from the workshops (DTS). The results of the fractionation revealed that Fe, Zn, Cd and Ni were mainly in residual and Fe-Mn oxide fraction while Cu and Pb were in residual and organic bound fraction. The enrichment factors of metals in all the sites range from no enrichment to very severe enrichment. Mobility factor in all the sites were low ranging from 3.13-16.48, indicating generally low availability as well as mobility. Environmental risk factors showed that these metals pose potential threat to the environment. Contamination factor of all metals except Cd, in all the sites, exceeded unity indicating that the soils are clearly contaminated with these metals. Continuous monitoring is essential as these sites are potential sources of these metals.</p> U. U. Ngbejume, B. Anegbe, C. F. Okafor Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/734 Wed, 04 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000