Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-top: 0px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria is a bimonthly publication of original research reports in pure and applied chemistry. Among our regulations include</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">1) Manuscript submitted to this journal is not published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere either in parts or whole. Again the author agrees that the copyright for his article is totally transferred to the Editorial Board of this Journal once the said article is accepted for publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">2) Authors that work for organizations must obtain the written consent of their employer(s) prior to this publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">3) By this agreement, the organization surrenders its copyright to this journal.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">4)No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form without the permission in writing from the copyright holder.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">While the Editorial Board makes every effort to ensure that no misleading information or statement appears in this journal. It is made clear herein that the data and information in the articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Consequently, the Editorial board and their respective staff and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such misleading data and/or information.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">©CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (CSN)</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"><strong> Prof. Joseph Anireju LORI</strong><sub>BSc, MSc, PhD, FCSN, FICCON, FRSC</sub></p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> Editor-in-Chief</p> en-US <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> csnjournal@gmail.com (Prof. Joseph Anireju LORI) webmaster@chemsociety.org.ng (webmaster) Sat, 20 Apr 2024 10:39:54 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 RATE OF REACTION IN TERMS OF EXTENT (?) OR ADVANCEMENT OF THE REACTION https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/957 <p>The aim of this work was to illustrate the rate of a chemical reaction in terms of advancement or extent of reaction, denoted as ?. We applied theoretical mathematical treatments to hypothetical chemical reaction via decay of reactants. A more consistent and succinct definition of the rate of a given reaction has been observed to be given in terms of advancement or extent ? of the reaction. This method of simplification of the kinetics of reaction rates is hereby presented for enhancement of the study of chemical kinetics.</p> Inemesit A. Akpan, Nnanake-Abasi O. Offiong, Uwem P. Akai Copyright (c) 2024 Inemesit A. Akpan, Nnanake-Abasi O. Offiong, Uwem P. Akai https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/957 Sat, 20 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CANNABINOIDS FROM THE STEMS OF Cannabis sativa https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/958 <p>There is an increased interest in the chemistry of cannabis and cannabinoids and this is because of their therapeutic potentials. Several cannabinoids have been isolated from the leaves and flowers of Cannabis sativa, with some formulated into drugs for the treatment of certain ailments. In this study, the isolation and characterization, using chromatographic and NMR techniques, of cannabinoids from the stems of Cannabis sativa was carried out. Cannabis stems were collected from the Department of Biology, Nasarawa State College of Education, Akwanga. Fractionation and purification of the extracts were carried out using silica gel column chromatography. A high performance liquid chromatography equipped with an electrostatic light scattering detector, ultraviolet detector (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS) was used to determine the mass of isolated cannabinoids. Two cannabinoids, cannabinol and cannabinol methyl ether were isolated from fractions of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, and were characterized using a JEOL Delta GX 400 MHz FT nuclear magnetic resonance spectrophotometer. The isolation of these cannabinoids in sample analysed confirms that Nigeria cannabis contained cannabinoids, and this also shown that the stems of cannabis can be used as stimulants to reduce the effects and symptoms of glaucoma and treat cases related to epidermolysis bullosa because of the isolation of cannabinol.</p> E. B. Ayakeme, A. I. Ambo, M.O. Aremu, J. O. Igoli, L. A. Nnamonu Copyright (c) 2024 E. B. Ayakeme, A. I. Ambo, M.O. Aremu, J. O. Igoli, L. A. Nnamonu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/958 Sat, 20 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF GLASS MANUFACTURING PROCESS WASTEWATER WITH CONFORMED EFFLUENT DISCHARGES https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/959 <p>The constituents of wastewater and effluent discharges from the manufacturing operations was investigated as a representative of other soda lime silica glass manufacturing and other related processes in Nigeria. Samples were sourced from the Forming end, compressor, generator and furnace cooling waters. The samples collected were analysed in the laboratory by physicochemical analysis and Microbiological analysis. The results indicated that the physiochemical parameters such as odourless and clearer colour were observed from the influent. The pH was brought down from 9.0 to 7.8 with the heavy metal kept below maximum limit. The major contaminants in glass waste water are suspended solids which comes from both silica sand and cullet treatment plants, it was reduced from 50mg/L to 30mg/L. The organics and its derivatives have been treated to have moved conductivity from 64 to 100 However, the bacteriological related cocntaminants were eliminated</p> E. F. Sodiya, S. O. Olagbende, N.Y Ilesanmi Copyright (c) 2024 E. F. Sodiya, S. O. Olagbende, N.Y Ilesanmi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/959 Sat, 20 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF SCHIFF BASES CONTAINING 4-AMINOBENZOIC ACID MOEITY https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/960 <p>The use of Schiff bases in material science, therapeutics and sensor has been achieved due to its electrochemical potentials. In this study, Schiff bases of 4-((2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)benzoic acid (G1) and 4-((5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)benzoic acid (G2) were synthesized from 4-aminobenzoic acid. The compounds were characterized using FTIR, ESI-MS and 1H NMR which confirm the synthesized compounds. The electrochemical behaviour of both ligands was studied in triethylammonium phosphate acetonitrile solution. The cyclic voltammetry of G1 and G2 Schiff bases resembled voltammograms with one or two quasi-reversible redox processes, indicating redox potentials of the ligands. The electrochemical screening showed that the ligands would exhibit significant binding interactions with molecules such as metal ions and biological models.</p> F. N. Ejiah, M. O. Rofiu, A. A. Akitoye, T. M. Fasina Copyright (c) 2024 F. N. Ejiah, M. O. Rofiu, A. A. Akitoye, T. M. Fasina https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/960 Sat, 20 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF HAND DUG WELL WATER IN MAKURDI, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/961 <p>This paper presents the physicochemical parameters of well water in Makurdi metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from North Bank, High-Level, Tse-Poor and Kanshio areas of Makurdi metropolis over a period of two weeks and analysed for physicochemical parameters using instrumental methods. The results revealed that most of the parameters were within the limits of Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Parameters that were within the permissible limits in all the samples (100 %) were electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, chloride, fluoride and temperature. Their mean values were 262.91±148.33 µS/cm, 133.13±72.86 mg/L, 93.08±48.30 mg/L, 0.44±0.23 mg/L and 28.46±1.27 oC respectively. The compliance of other parameters such as dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total hardness, nitrate and pH with NSDWQ and WHO standards ranged from 50 – 91.67 % of the samples. Meanwhile the reference value for the level of total suspended solids in drinking could not be obtained from the available literature. It was concluded that the well water in Makurdi contains some properties at variance with set standards and should be treated before consumption. There is also a need for periodic assessment of the well water quality to guide against the consumption of water with deteriorated quality.</p> S. M. Tongu, T. A. Nyijime, R. C. Nwankwo, J. O. Odiba Copyright (c) 2024 S. M. Tongu, T. A. Nyijime, R. C. Nwankwo, J. O. Odiba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/961 Sat, 20 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 FABRICATION, OPTIMIZATION AND ASSESSMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF CASSAVA LOCAL VARIETY (Ighu) and Colocasia esculenta (COCOYAM) PEEL COMPOSITE BIO-SOLID FUELS https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/962 <p>The quest for briquette manufacture is increasing due to demand for a cheap and sustainable solid fuel. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of biomass residues of peels of cassava local variety (Ighu) and Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam) on the properties of coal briquettes by blending the agricultural waste with coal. In preparation of briquettes, the ratio of coal to agricultural wastes used were 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, 0:100. The moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, calorific values of the raw materials were analyzed. The proximate, mechanical and combustion properties of the coal and bio-coal briquettes produced such as compressive strength, ignition time, moisture content, durability were also analyzed using standard methods. Comparison of the briquettes showed that the ignition time, durability, porosity index and compressive strength of the coal briquettes were enhanced by the biomass residues. The values obtained for the produced briquettes were comparable to those previously reported in literature. The optimum coal : biomass load was 60 : 40. The obtained results showed that the bio-coal briquette produced in this study were environmentally friendly and useful in real applications.</p> N. O. Eze, F. S. Nworie, S. Nnamdi, T. U. Onuegbu Copyright (c) 2024 N. O. Eze, F. S. Nworie, S. Nnamdi, T. U. Onuegbu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/962 Sat, 20 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLOEUCALENOL TRANSFERULATE FROM LEAVES OF Euphorbia tithymaloides https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/963 <p>The latex, leaves, stems, and roots of Euphorbia tithymaloides (Euphorbiaceae) have traditionally been used to treat earaches, insect stings, ringworm, toothaches, skin cancer, umbilical hernia, and warts. Approximately 1 kg of the pulverized leaves was macerated successively with hexane and ethyl acetate, and resultant Crude extracts were phytochemically screened using standard established procedures. Ethyl acetate extract was loaded onto a column containing slurry of silica gel. Gradients of hexane in ethyl acetate mobile phase were used to elute the column, affording a total of 130 fractions. Fractions 41-47 gave tiny deposit on evaporation labelled UMPT (m.p: 269-270 oC).Their thin layer chromatography gave a single spot of Rf 0.61.These were combined and labelled UMPT44. Phytochemical screening of UMPT44 gave positive test for phenols and triterpenoids. Antimicrobial screening of UMPT44 showed that it was active against some fungi and bacteria. The zone of inhibition measured 30 mm when tested against Coniophora puteana, 29 mm against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 27 mm against Salmonella typhi, and 26 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Fusarium oxysporum, and Escherichia coli. Additionally, there was a 25 mm zone of inhibition against Serpula lacrymans. The determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration indicated that UMPT44 holds promise as a potential antimicrobial agent. Based on evaluation of NMR spectral data and comparison with literature reports, UMPT44 was identified as cycloeucalenol transferulate. This is the first time this compound is isolated from the plant</p> J. V. Anyam, U. Suleiman, T. A. Tor-Anyiin, J. O. Igoli Copyright (c) 2024 J. V. Anyam, U. Suleiman, T. A. Tor-Anyiin, J. O. Igoli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/963 Wed, 24 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED POLYTHIOPHENE SUPPORTED PLANT MEDIATED CO-NI BIMETALLIC NANOCOMPOSITES https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/964 <p>Ficus mucuso leaf extract was employed as reducing agent in the synthesis of Co-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles (BMNPs) with two precursors namely; Cobalt (ii) nitrate hexahydrate; [CO(NO3)2.6H2O] and nickel (ii) nitrate hexahydrate; [Ni (NO3)2.6H2O]. Afterwards, acid modified polythiophene was synthesized through the in-situ and ex-situ coupling approach. The nanocomposite obtained from the in-situ method was labelled ‘A’ and that of the ex-situ, ‘B’. The in-situ approach was considered to be more appropriate for synthesizing the BMNPs as confirmed by characterization using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The hexagonal cobalt and the cubic nickel were investigated using XRD to determine the particle sizes taking Debye-Scherrer’s equation to be around 14.495nm for sample A and 15.689nm for sample B. This was reported to be responsible for the corresponding intense peak at A over B. The SEM and TEM measurements portray good correlation indicating the presence of agglomerates in sample B. The EDS analysis taken reported a higher weight of the cobalt and nickel compositions in A than in B. TGA explained the higher decomposition rate of B than A. Also, a more pronounced intense peak was observed in A than in B using FTIR technique. This comparison of both samples makes in-situ synthesis unquestionably the best because of its outstanding performance over ex-situ approach. This is the first report of Ficus Mucuso plant extract being used in nanosynthesis.</p> G. V. Awolola, R. O. Ayoola, O. D. Saliu, O. O. Oluwaniyi, O. O. Dosumu, O. S. Oladeji Copyright (c) 2024 G. V. Awolola, R. O. Ayoola, O. D. Saliu, O. O. Oluwaniyi, O. O. Dosumu, O. S. Oladeji https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/964 Wed, 24 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 GREEN SYNTHESIS OF TITANIUM OXIDE (TIO2) NANOPARTICLES USING Phyllanthus Niruri AND ASSESSMENT OF ITS PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/965 <p>This study investigates the green synthesis of titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, NPs and assessment of its physiochemical parameters in wastewater treatment. The methanol plant extract of Phyllanthus niruri was utilized for the biosynthesis of titanium oxide NPs. The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on Phyllanthus niruri plant extract was conducted to identify the bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, glycosides and steroids which may be responsible for stabilizing the nanoparticles synthesized. In the treatment of the industrial wastewater sample; the result indicated that the use of the synthesized titanium oxide nanoparticles led to percentage reduction of 67.21%, 58.96%, 91.19%, 75.56% and 94.67% for BOD, COD, turbidity, oil and grease and phosphate respectively, in the raw wastewater; and was more effective than the use of commercial titanium oxide NPs. The study indicates that synthesis of titanium oxide NPs using Phyllanthus niruri is a better alternative to chemical synthesis of NPs, the green synthesized material is eco-friendly and can serve as a treatment for industrial effluents.</p> H. Yunusa, K. I. Omoniyi, S. E. Abechi, S. D. Sani, A. O. Ugwoke, N. Imam Copyright (c) 2024 H. Yunusa, K. I. Omoniyi, S. E. Abechi, S. D. Sani, A. O. Ugwoke, N. Imam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/965 Wed, 24 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER BIODIESEL (CWO100) PRODUCED FROM COMPOSITE WASTE OILS, ETHANOL AND KOH https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/966 <p>There is an urgent need to convert Composite waste oils (CWOs) from domestic and industrial sources using circular system thinking approach due to the growing concern of their socio-economic, environmental and governance effects and impacts of increased human anthropogenic activities. CWO was first pre-treated by sieving, heated to reduce moisture/water concentration and the acid value lowered with the addition of sufficient KOH, then base transesterification reaction with ethanol (1:1), 1% KOH at 700C for 2 h. The physio-chemical and fuel properties of the CWO100 was analyzed using standard analytical methods, and the data statistically using SPSS version 20.0. CWO100 (FAEE) has lowest value of water and sediment, acid value, free fatty acid, carbon residue and sulphur, and the highest values for viscosity, specific gravity, density, colour, flash point, iodine. Most of its parameters are within the ASTM/EN standards except in CWOs that requires pre-treatment. CWO100 is better than petroleum diesel and can be applied in diesel engines, plants with little or no modification as a major alternative now and thereafter.</p> A. G. Taiwo, O. Shoyemi, M. A. Adepoju, A. A. Ibikunle Copyright (c) 2024 A. G. Taiwo, O. Shoyemi, M. A. Adepoju, A. A. Ibikunle https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/966 Wed, 24 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF REDOX REACTION BETWEEN NAPHTHOL GREEN B AND THIOSULPHATE ION IN AQUEOUS ACID: KINETICS AND MECHANISTIC APPROACH METHOD https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/968 <p>The kinetics of the redox reaction of naphthol green B (here and thereafter referred to as (NGB3-) with thiosulphate ion has been studied using spectrophotometer at constant ionic strength, I = 0.50 C2mol dm-3 (NaCl), ?H+? = 1.0 ? 10-4 mol dm-3 (HCl) and T = 21 ?1?C. The redox reaction showed a stoichiometry of 2:1 and rate equation for the reaction is: -d[NGB3-]/dt = (a + b[H+])[NGB3-][S2O32-]. The rate of reaction slightly increased with increase in [H+] in the range of (0.5 – 9.0) × 10?4 mol dm?3 investigated. Changes in the ionic strength of the reaction did not affect the rate of the reaction. This showed zero BrØnsted - Debye salt effect. The reaction shows a first order dependence on [oxidant] and [reductant]. Added anion on the reaction rate does not have effect on the rate of the reaction. Michaelis – Menten’s plot of 1/k1 versus 1/ S2O32- and spectrophotometric test suggest presence of an intermediate in the rate determining step. There was evidence of gel formation by the addition of acrylamide to reaction mixture followed by excess methanol. The results obtained suggest the presence of the formation of intermediate complex. Therefore, innersphere mechanism is proposed for this reaction.</p> B. Myek, P. A. Anthony, I. B. Anweting, A. Adetoro, A. I. Anene Copyright (c) 2024 B. Myek, P. A. Anthony, I. B. Anweting, A. Adetoro, A. I. Anene https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/968 Wed, 24 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 INVESTIGATION OF CORROSION INHIBITION POTENTIAL OF HYPHAENE THEBAICA SHELLS EXTRACT ON TANNERY MACHINES PARTS IN ACIDIC MEDIUM https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/969 <p>Corrosion inhibition potential of ternary machine part was investigated by using ethanoic extract of hyphaene thebaica shells as inhibitor at different temperature of 313K and 333K. The Tannery machines part which are majorly made up of mild steels are subjected to harsh conditions, which include exposure to moisture, air, acid, base, salt and other environmental components that causes corrosion on machines’ parts. The aim of this research was to generate measurable and testable data towards the control of corrosion using plant (hyphaene thebaica shells ethanolic extracts) as inhibitor. This was accomplished through the determination of inhibitor’s performance by weight loss techniques, determination of metal-inhibitor interaction mechanism using kinetic parameters and adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Temkin), the corrosion process through the use of exposure time, phytochemicals of the shell extracts, inhibitor concentration, media concentration, temperature, initial weight of metal and the weight of the metals in every 2 hours for a total of 6 hours. A weight loss technique was adopted and the weights of the mild steel were recorded every 2 hrs for 6 hrs. The highest inhibition efficiency (78.44%) was attained at 333 K for 0.1 g/dm3 concentration of the plant inhibitor. Inhibition efficiency decreased with further increase in the temperature. The green inhibitor was found to be effective because it is ecofriendly, inexpensive and biodegradable.</p> N. Oladunni, I. B. Anweting, A. Adetoro, Y. O. Ganiyu, E. Uwaiya Copyright (c) 2024 N. Oladunni, I. B. Anweting, A. Adetoro, Y. O. Ganiyu, E. Uwaiya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/969 Wed, 24 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN SEDIMENT, GROUND AND SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN COASTAL AREAS OF ONDO STATE, NIGERIA https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/970 <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of global concern due to their harmful effect on the health of human and the environment. They are known as persistent organic pollutants and linked to severe health effects in humans and ecosystem. This study aimed to investigate the presence and types of these hydrocarbons including assessing their distributions in groundwater water, surface water and sediment in Igbokoda, Irele and Okitipupa coastal areas of Ondo State, Nigeria. The watersamples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction while the sediment samples were extracted with an ultrasonic bath extractor. The extracts were cleaned with alumina as adsorbent and analyzed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The results showed wide variations in the concentrations of the analytes of interest in the different matrices studied. The total mean concentration range of these pollutants in the samples from the well, borehole, surface water, and the sediment were: 0.15 ± 0.31, 0.11±0.52 to 0.90± 0.28, 0.05±0.02 to0.11±0.52 and 0.16±0.14 to0.21±0.17, respectively. The result revealed that the concentrations of most of these contaminants were higher than the maximum permissible limit of PAH in drinking water and sediment. The contamination level was higher in the borehole water source than the others. The study concluded that all the investigated matrices were contaminated with these pollutants. The study recommended the enactment of new laws of regulating activities leading to the emissions of these pollutants by the Nigerian government inorder to safeguard the environment and human health.</p> T. A. Akinnifesi, F. B. Borokini, A.O. Adegun, E. Mafinuyomi, A. Olonisakin, N. B. Omodara, N. A. Oladoja Copyright (c) 2024 T. A. Akinnifesi, F. B. Borokini, A.O. Adegun, E. Mafinuyomi, A. Olonisakin, N. B. Omodara, N. A. Oladoja https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/970 Wed, 24 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHITOSAN FROM WASTE SHELLS OF Tagelus Plebeiu OBTAINED FROM OYOROKOTOR, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/972 <p>The investigation was carried out to synthesize chitosan using waste shell of Tagelus plebeiu collected from Oyorokotor as an alternative to other kinds of shells. Standard procedures such as demineralization, deproteinization and deacetylation were used. Methods such as fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for characterization to obtain results. Results reveals FTIR spectra bands at 3637.9 cm-1 for hydroxyl and 3384.4 cm-1 for amino functional group as well as 18.20 at 2 titha from XRD pattern. The degree of deacetylation was recorded as 80.48 %, moisture content as 0.101 %, yield was 53.24 % and ash content was recorded as 25 %. It is therefore concluded that the waste shell of Tagelus plebeiu can be used in producing quality chitosan as an alternative to other kinds of shells.</p> B. S. Nordee, T. K. J. Ideriah, C. C. Obunwo, G. A. Cookey Copyright (c) 2024 B. S. Nordee, T. K. J. Ideriah, C. C. Obunwo, G. A. Cookey https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/972 Wed, 24 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 MEDICINAL EVALUATION OF AFRICAN SATINWOOD (D.benthamianus) EXTRACT FOR ORAL HEALTH https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/973 <p>The use of wood sticks for brushing teeth continues to be an important tool in many Afro-Asian communities particularly in the western part of Africa. The plants used are very carefully selected and a great number of these plant species have related medicinal properties that may be antibacterial. Therefore, this research work on African satinwood (Distemonanthus benthamianus) commonly known as ‘orin aayan’ in the western part of Nigeria was done to analyze its efficacy as an active oral wash through analysis of its chemical composition using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the Ethanol extract of the Distemonanthus benthamianus chew sticks was carried out using standard methods. The results obtained revealed that the chew stick contains ten different compounds out of which a few (Benzoic acid, ethyl ester, Decanoic acid, ethyl ester, Octanoic acid ethyl ester) were reported to be antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory.. Benzene (1-pentylhepthyl) has also been reported as a pain reliever. The chemical composition of the ethanol extract Distemonanthus benthamianus showed that they can be a potential source of drugs for toothache and decay as well as flavoring agents in the production of commercial herbal toothpaste. Evidently, from the analysis, this plant is a rich source of bioactive compounds and may be used in developing value-added products and other industrial applications to extract their health and oral benefits.</p> O. A. Ajayi , B. O. Alawode Copyright (c) 2024 O. A. Ajayi , B. O. Alawode https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/973 Tue, 07 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000