Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; margin-top: 0px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria is a bi-annual publication of original research reports in pure and applied chemistry. Among our regulations include</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">1) Manuscript submitted to this journal is not published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere either in parts or whole. Again the author agrees that the copyright for his article is totally transferred to the Editorial Board of this Journal once the said article is accepted for publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">2) Authors that work for organizations must obtain the written consent of their employer(s) prior to this publication</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">3) By this agreement, the organization surrenders its copyright to this journal.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">4) No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form without the permission in writing from the copyright holder.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">While the Editorial Board makes every effort to ensure that no misleading information or statement appears in this journal. It is made clear herein that the data and information in the articles and advertisements are the responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Consequently, the Editorial board and their respective staff and agents accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such misleading data and/or information.</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">©CHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NIGERIA (CSN)</p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"><strong> Prof. Joseph Anireju LORI</strong><sub>BSc, MSc, PhD, FCSN, FICCON, FRSC</sub></p> <p style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;noto kufi arabic&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> Editor-in-Chief</p> en-US csnjournal@gmail.com (Prof. Joseph Anireju LORI) webmaster@chemsociety.org.ng (webmaster) Mon, 06 Sep 2021 12:46:32 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 SYNTHESIS CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF SOME STRONTIUM-HYDRAZONE COMPLEXES https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/647 <p>Hydrazones and their coordinated compounds were prepared for antimicrobial activi ties investigation while hydrazides were prepared from their esters. The hydrazides were reacted with benzaldehyde to produce benzoylhydrazone, m-nitrobenzoylhyd razone, p-nitrobezoylhydrazone, 3,5 dinitrobenzoylhydrazone, p-aminobenzoylhyd razone and m-aminobenzoylhydrazone in white, off white, light-yellow, deep-yellow and light-brown colours. Complexes were synthesized from strontium chloride and the hydrazones which produced off-white, grey, light-brown and dark-brown complexes. The ligand-metal compounds were analyzed through complexometric titration while characterization of all the samples were based on spectra data. Metal to hydrazone stoichiometry of 1:0.5 to 1:3 were proposed for the complexes. Relevant assignments were made in the hydrazones and complexes for possible points of coordination. Physicochemical properties of the ligands and their coordinated compounds were determined. Antimicrobial Properties of the compounds demonstrated good performance on Streptococcus faecalis, Clostridium sporosenes, Baccillus anthracis, Pseudomonas fluorescenes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hansenula anomala. Nanohybrid study of the samples is recommended for future studies on the antimicrobial activities.</p> J. A. Aremu, L. M. Durosinmi, A. K. Akinlabi, E. O. Dare, E. A. Oluyemi, I. A. O. Ojo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/647 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATION OF ALLANBLACKIA FLORIBUNDA SEED OIL FOR POTENTIAL USE IN SOAP MAKING. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/651 <p>Allanblackia floribunda seed oil was extracted and used for soap production, as an alternative to palm oil and other frequently used vegetable oils in industries. The physico-chemical properties of the oil in terms of density, melting point, saponification value and iodine value were measured using American oil chemists’ society (AOCS) standard methods. Medicated Allanblackia floribunda soap was produced by reaction of the oil produced with caustic soda, water, pine oil, chloroxylenol, colour, fillers of different percentages. The physiochemical parameter measured show that the oil has iodine value of 39, melting point of 37 0C, density of 0.914 g/ml, peroxide value of 0.86 mEq/kg, saponification value of 198 mgKOH/g, moisture content of 0.16 % and percentage free fatty acid of 1.15%. The values of the physico-chemical properties of Allanblackia soap made were: soap weight = 81.8 g, soap texture - soft, foam height = 59.6 ml, percentage moisture content = 8.56 %, percentage free caustic alkali = 0.01 %, percentage alcohol insoluble matter = 4.0 %, percentage water insoluble matter = 1.6 % and percentage total fatty matter = 72.0 %. There were little deviations in the values of the parameters of the soap produced with the Allanblackia floribunda seed oil from that of the commercial medicated soaps (tetmosol and dettol) analysed. The results from the study show that the soap produced from Allanblackia floribunda seed oil is good and can serve as an alternative to palm oil.</p> N. J. MaduelosI, U. J. Okwechime, L. Suannu-Nna Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/651 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NIGERIAN KALANCHOE PINNATA (LAM.) STEM-BARK https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/654 <p>Kalanchoe pinnata also known as Bryophyllum pinnatum and commonly referred to as Life or Miracle plant is used in traditional medicine in some parts of Nigeria. The stem-bark of the plant was extracted with 70% ethanol and the crude extract evaluated for its phytochemical constituents as well as pharmacological activities. The phytochemical profile showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, steroids/terpenes and tannins while the quantitative analysis gave the phenolics content to be 5.538 ± 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent, flavonoid content as 0.242 ± 0.001 mg quercetin equivalent and tannin content as 0.019 ± 0.001 mg tannic acid equivalent per gram of extract. The scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) radical showed that the plant exhibited higher antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 40.56 and 37.28 µg/ml for ascorbic acid and the extract respectively. The antimicrobial activity results showed that the extract inhibited the growth of micro-organisms such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Aspergillus niger; while the extract was inactive against Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. These results give scientific evidence for the use of the plant in folk medicine.</p> C. A. Kendeson, M. L. Kagoro, E. A. Adelakun Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/654 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BRIQUETTES FROM CASHEW LEAVES AND BANANA LEAVES ADMIXTURE. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/657 <p>The rapid increase in the world’s population and urbanization is a threat to non-renewable energy source; crude oil. This necessitates the use of biomass and agricultural waste as an alternative source of energy. This study is aimed at production and characterization of briquettes from Cashew Leaves (CL), Banana Leaves (BL) and CL- BL admixture using Cassava starch as binder. The volatile matter, fixed carbon, calorific value and other physico-chemical parameters of the briquettes were examined under the same experimental condition. The volatile matter, fixed carbon and calorific value of 68.29±0.06 %, 16.51±0.07 % and 23.52±0.02 MJ/Kg respectively were recorded in sample E (at 100% BL) followed by sample D (25% CL+ 75% BL admixture) with 68.34±0.03 %, 16.01±0.03 % and 22.91±0.01 MJ/Kg respectively at p &lt; 0.05.While sample A (100% CL) recorded an average volatile matter, fixed carbon and calorific value of 69.40±0.01%, 12.36±0.02 % and 21.06±0.03 MJ/Kg respectively. The finding of this study shows that the incorporation as well as increase in the percentage of BL in CL-BL admixture progressively improved its quality as biofuel.</p> A. O. Bamisaye, A. R. Ige, A. M. Ahmed, M. O. Bamidele, H. A. Kaoje Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/657 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 NANOEMULSION: A PROMISING AND NOVEL NANOTHERAPEUTIC VEHICLE FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY APPLICATION https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/639 <p>Transdermal delivery of therapeutics has been identified by scientific researchers as an alternative choice of drug administration, owing to its unique and tremendous benefit over conventional and oral administrations, but its exploration has been limited because of the “skin barricade” as its major challenge. Special formulation that is capable of meeting up and overcoming its associated challenges is required. Nanotechnology is already established as one of the developing areas of technology and its application in drug delivery has proven overwhelming success. Nanoemulsions are unique nanotechnological formulations that represent a novel drug delivery system towards resolving pharmaceutical challenges as well as improves dermal and transdermal drug delivery. Since the majority of novel drug candidates especially those phyto-pharmaceutically discovered are of less solubility and bioavailability, their pharmaceutical applications have been underexplored. This study aims at presenting nanoemulsion as a novel formulation capable of solving undesirable pharmaceutical challenges such as toxicity, first-pass metabolic effect, drug solubility, and bioavailability. Its potential as an exclusive nanocarrier that mobilizes and promotes transdermal therapeutic delivery is also reviewed. Improvement in drug potential and delivery using nanoemulsions as a recent advance with particular attention to the possibility of its journey through the skin and its consideration as a multiple delivery tool for the systemic circulation through the skin as a transdermal drug delivery route is also highlighted.</p> O. B. Oyelaja-Akinsipo, E.O. Dare, F. O. Oladoyinbo, D. P. Katare, L. O. Sanni, S. O. Alayande Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/639 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS IN ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Rauvolfia vomitoria LEAVES https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/642 <p>Herbal medicine has demonstrated great potential of therapeutic benefits in its contribution to modern medicine. Africa is endowed with many plants that can be used for medicinal purposes to which they have taken full advantage. Rauvolfia vomitoria is one of the medicinal plants that is widely distributed across the forests of Africa and Asia. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria leaves was carried out. The result indicated the presence of Tannins, Saponins, Steroids, Glycosides, Alkaloids, and Flavonoids. Further analysis of the Ethanolic extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria leaves was carried out using GC-MS. Among many compounds determined in the GC-MS analysis of the leaves extract were Methenamine, Benzofuran and Methyl urinate which have been reported to be anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. The Ethanolic leave extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria therefore could contribute immensely to effective treatment of some infectious diseases.</p> O. A. Ajayi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/642 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THE STEM AND LEAVES EXTRACT OF Phyllanthus niruri OBTAINED FROM ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/645 <p>Phyllanthus are genus of a flowering plants used in herbal medicine. Commonly used in Ayurvedic healing, Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) known as “STONE BREAKER” are one of the herbal medicinal plants that has a broad range of properties, which are antiviral activities against hepatitis B, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anticancer, and hypocalcemic agent. This research were conducted to screen the phytochemical composition, evaluate the antioxidant assay using trolox and gallic acid is control and to determine the antioxidant content of P. niruri extract using rutin and quercetin as standard, which are flavonoids possessing medicinal properties. The qualitative phytochemical screening assay on P. niruri extract showed that the extract had a high content of saponins (+++), a moderate content of phenols, flavonoids, and tannins (++). It also had a low content of steroids, but triterpenoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids were not detected in the screening (-). Rutin and quercetin contents of the crude extracts were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the antioxidant activity assay were measured using UV-Spectroscopy by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydroxyl (DPPH) method. The result show that the concentrations of quercetin and rutin in the sample analyzed were 185.96±0.5 and 91.68±0.21 µg/g respectively while the DPPH IC50 values of the crude extract were 62.05 µg/ML. The significant amounts of these antioxidants confirm the nutritional and medicinal value of the plants sample.</p> N.M Gaila, Aisha Ahmed, A. W Omar Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/645 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF PHYTOCHEMICALS, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Vernonia amygdalina https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/649 <p>Folin Ciocalteu’ s method was employed to screen Vernonia amygdalina leaf and the seeds of Garcinia kola and Cola accuminata for total polyphenols. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 1, 1 -diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The result of the total polyphenol content indicated 3211.6, 1826.2 and 892.8mg (GAE)/100g dry weight of sample and the antioxidant activity ranged from 50.80, 46.00 to 36.32 for C. acuminata, G. kola and V amygdalia respectively. A high level of correlation (r2 = 0.927) was observed for total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were also assessed for antimicrobial activity using agar well diffusion method. Screening for major classes of phytochemicals was done using standard chemical tests. The preliminary phytochemical test revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phenols, alkaloids and steroids as the major chemical groups in these plant extracts. The plant extracts showed antibacterial activity against the test organisms. However, the highest spectrum of activity was indicated by Garcinia Kola as it was active against B. subtilis and S. mutans at a low concentration of 1.25mg/mi (l4 &amp; l2mm). The results obtained in the present investigation showed that the use of these plants as nutraceuticals may reduce the risk of microbial infections and diseases associated with oxidative stress.</p> B. O. Ugwuowo , A. Ahmed, H. O. Oluwasola, P. O. Ukoha Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/649 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 INVESTIGATION OF POLLUTION LEVELS OF SOILS WITHIN PETROLEUM DEPOTS IN NIGERIA https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/652 <p>The petroleum depots are housing facilities for the erected petroleum storage tanks, which serve the purpose of keeping petroleum products. The threats posed by the storage tanks on the environment cannot be overlooked. Levels of chemical components of soil around the storage tanks of Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) depots in Kwara and Oyo States were assessed using exposure limits, health standards as well as pollution indices. Parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivities (EC) and heavy metals (Fe, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co and Ni) were determined in the soil around the storage tanks of the depots using standard methods. Average levels of heavy metals in soil followed the decreasing order Fe &gt; Zn &gt; Mn &gt; Pb &gt; Ni &gt; Cr &gt; Cu &gt; Co &gt; Cd for Kwara Petroleum depot and Fe &gt; Zn &gt; Mn &gt; Pb &gt; Ni &gt; Cr &gt; Co &gt; Cu &gt; Cd for Oyo Petroleum depot. Zn (1.77 mg/g) and Mn (1.13 mg/g) were respectively above the regulatory limit of FEPA (0.75 mg/g and 0.48 mg/g), permissible limits of WHO (0.3 mg/g and 0.05 mg/g) and maximum permissible limits of USEPA (0.2 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g) for Kwara Petroleum depot. Fe was above the regulatory limit of FEPA (5.0 mg/g) for both depots. Oyo Petroleum depot had considerable degree of contamination (17.444) of heavy metals while Kwara Petroleum depot had a very high degree of contamination (42.325) of heavy metals. Metal Pollution Index values (1.351 and 1.632) for Oyo Petroleum depot and Kwara Petroleum respectively indicated pollution in both depots. The Pearson Correlation (at 0.05 significant level) showed significant correlation between most heavy metals which signified that they were likely from the same source. Installation of primary treatment plant or proper maintenance measures are recommended to be put in place.</p> F. O. Nwosu, Y. O. Olulegan, O. D. Olayinka, S.F. Fabiyi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/652 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 SPECIATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF LABILE HEAVY METAL DISCHARGES IN OGUN RIVERS USING DGT TECHNIQUE. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/655 <p>This study profiled labile exogenous metals ubiquitous in the ecology of Ogun River induced by persistent anthropogenic activities along the riverbanks. The labile metals existing as metal-ions were trapped with a passive sampling technique of diffused gradients in thin films (DGT) subsequent upon which the metal-ions were carefully extracted and analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Nine labile metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn) were targeted in this study. The results of the study showed that mean values of labile Fe and Zn exceeded 3 µg/L whilst those of labile Pb, Cd and Mn occurred in the range of 1.41 and 1.88 µg/L in the river matrices. The mean values of labile Cr, Co, Ni and Cu occurred below 1.0 µg/L in the river matrices. The high industrial activities and population density along the Isheri, Ilo and Owo axes of the Ogun River accentuated the presence of labile Pb, Zn and Fe in the river matrices.</p> O. O. Ogunbanjo, F. O. Oladapo, F. O. Oladapo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/655 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 COORDINATION-DRIVEN SELF-ASSEMBLY DISCRETE ORGANOPLATINUM(II) SUPRAMOLECULAR METALLACYCLE https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/658 <p>The aim of this investigation is, to utilize coordination-driven self-assembly reactions of 4, 4′-dibromobenzophenone with tetrakis(triethyl phosphine) platinum to construct platinum-containing supramolecular metallacycle, 4, 4′-bis[trans-Pt(PEt3)2Br]benzophenone with exploitable properties for application in catalysis, energy storage, and biomedicine. The process was monitored by 1H NMR and C NMR. A 4, 4’-dibromobenzophenone and tetrakis(triethyl phosphine) platinum in the ratio 1:2 in toluene were utilized in the synthesis. In the structure, platinum ions are coordinated through the bridging ligand molecules forming polymeric chains with a four atomic environment. The coordination environment was that of a square planar geometry with two phosphorus atoms of triethyl phosphine in apical positions. The optimized geometry evaluated by DFT B3LYP-6-311G, Gaussian09W, and Avogadro models support the crystal structure of this molecule. The compound offers high reversible binding properties that can be used for designing smart surfaces for applications in catalysis, energy storage, and biomedicine. The results from the experimental investigation and computer-aided design provide insight into the best strategies, by design, and binding mode. Future works are recommended for developing this discrete supramolecular metallacycle into supramolecular metallacages for its application in the drug delivery system.&nbsp;</p> I. J. Mbonu, Y. Sun, P. J. Stang, Y. Sun Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/658 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF POWDERED Khaya ivorensis [HEARTWOOD] ON SOME PROPERTIES OF COAL BRIQUETTE https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/640 <p>This study was aimed at investigating the effects of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% load of powdered Khaya ivorensis [heartwood] on proximate analysis, elemental analysis and calorific value of coal briquette and the results were compared with that of blank samples. Ignition and combustion properties were determined using standard methods. The results for pulverized coal and powdered Khaya ivorensis showed moisture content (%) 6.8 and 12.3: ash content (%) 16.8 and 1.73: volatile matter (%) 54.70 and 82.12: fixed carbon (%) 21.7 and 3.85: calorific value (kJ/kg) 19765.55 and 16084.44 and bulk density (g/cm2) 0.83 and 0.20 respectively. The results showed the presence of SiO2, SO3, K2O, CaO, TiO2, Cr2 O3, Fe2O3 in the coal and Khaya ivorensis. The results of briquette analyses showed that porosity index, moisture content(%), volatile matter(%) increased with increase in mass load. The density (g/cm3), ash content (%), sulphur content(%) and ignition time (sec)decreased with increase in mass load while there is variation in compressive strength (N/mm2), calorific value, burning rate (kg/s) and thermal efficiency (%) as mass load increases. It was observed from the results that powdered Khaya ivorensis [heartwood] enhanced the properties of coal briquette.</p> T. U. Onuegbu, P. A.C. Okoye, O. J. Okakpu, C. I. Nwankwo, P.C. Igwenagu Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/640 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ISOLATION AND STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITE FROM STEM BARK EXTRACT OF Pterocarpus Mildbreadii https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/643 <p>Pterocarpus mildbreadii leaves and stem bark have been exploited in Nigeria, in the area of alternative medicine, due to their numerous biological properties. The upsurge in the search for new chemical agents to replace conventional drugs, prompted this study. The study was carried out for the first time, in the area of isolation and structural elucidation of bioactive compounds, from the ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of Pterocarpus mildbreadii. The ethanol extract of the stem bark was separated using column chromatographic technique. The fractions obtained were screened for antioxidant activity in a DPPH assay. The active fraction was further purified and the structure elucidated by subjecting it to a number of identification instruments, such as FTIR, MS and 1D &amp;2D NMR spectroscopy. The FTIR analysis of isolated bioactive compound gave the following λ max: 3400-2500 cm-1 a broad band characteristic of a carboxylic acid functional group and 1740 cm-1 carbonyl stretch. The mass spectrum game a molecular ion peak at m/z 282 consistent with the molecular formula C18H34O2. The proton NMR showed a doublet of doublet of doublet at 4.9, 5.3 and 5.8 ppm attributed to vinyl protons, two proton multiplets at 1.6,1.3, and 1.2 ppm; and a three proton triplet at 0.9 ppm. The HMBC and 13C NMR showed the presence of a carboxylic carbon at 176 ppm and vinylic carbons at 135 and 143 ppm respectively; the methyl carbon was observed at 14.12 ppm. On the basis of spectral analysis, results obtained suggested compound was cis-vaccenic acid and was confirmed by comparison with literature data. Isolated compound has antioxidant activity, with a maximum percentage scavenging activity of 89.66. The present study lends credence to the use of the plant in traditional medicine and posits pterocarpus mildbreadii as a rich source of secondary metabolites which can find application in the pharmaceutical industries.</p> L. Abare-Jen, J. K. Mensah, S. L. Borqouye, A. Y. Mensah, P. I. Amos Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/643 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 METALS AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) IN BEER: A REVIEW https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/646 <p>The major cations in beer are potassium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium with the anions, chloride, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate. The minor ones include iron, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, arsenic and phosphorous. These metals are important in beer fermentation because they supply the appropriate environment for yeast growth and influence yeast metabolism. Copper and iron are involved in beer conditioning and ageing through reactions resulting in the formation of reactive oxygen species which readily oxidize organic compounds present in beer, changing the quality of foaming and flavour stability of beer. Small amounts of nitrogen-containing constituents are present and phosphorous is associated with some of these. Only trace amounts of sulphur-containing compounds are present but some of these are very potent flavouring agents. Beer is also subject to PAHs contamination due to the drying and roasting of barley. PAHs have been detected in different types of beverages such as tea, coffee, distilled drinks, wine, and fruit juice. Although PAHs are usually found in low concentrations in foods and beverages, they are one of the main factors that contribute to the onset of cancer in humans. This review covers the determination of levels of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in beer. The review was designed to cover the sources of metals and PAHs in beer as well as functions of metals and methods for the determination of metals and PAHs in beer. It was also designed to give insight to the health concerns of beer consumers.</p> V. N. Okafor, P. U. Umennadi, C. C. Odidika, D. C. Vinna Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/646 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 SURFACE MORPHLOGY CHARACTERIZATION ON GREEN ADHESIVE PREPARED USING AGRICULTURAL AND PLASTIC WASTE MATERIAL AS COMPOSITES https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/650 <p>The surface morphology on green adhesives prepared using agricultural and plastic waste materials as composite for domestic and industrial utilizations was carried out. Preparation of adhesive filler (Rice Husk Ash) and formulation of adhesive binders (Polystyrene waste and Arabic gum) were conducted. A synthetic adhesive (Sample A) served as a control. Standard Adhesive and samples formulated were labeled A (Top Bond), B (Arabic gum and rice husk ash), C (Expanded polystyrene waste and rice husk ash), D (Expanded polystyrene waste and rice husk ash/CaCO3), E (Expanded polystyrene waste/Arabic gum and rice husk ash), F (Polyvinyl acetate/ Arabic gum and rice husk ash) and G (Expanded polystyrene waste/ Arabic gum and Calcium carbonate as a filler) respectively based on varied quantities of fillers and binders. The samples were subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of different magnifications and their responses observed. The sample magnification was taken from x350, x500, x1000, x1500 and x2000 for all the samples investigated. The SEM images confirmed the dispersion of the fillers in the polymer matrix. It is evident that the formaldehyde emission of sample A, B, C, D, E, F and G are 0.05, 0.04, 0.04, 0.04, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.03 respectively. Sample A has the highest emission (0.05) followed by sample B, C and D. Samples E and G had the lowest emission followed by sample F. All the samples were below the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limit (0.08 ppm). Samples E, G gives better products with formaldehyde emission test. It is evident that most of the adhesives formulated can compete favourably with the standard in terms of morphological structure, formaldehyde emission and bond strength.</p> K. A. Baraya, D. E. A. Boryo, I. Y. Chindo, U. F. Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/650 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PALM OIL OBTAINED FROM MAJOR MARKETS IN WUKARI, TARABA STATE. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/653 <p>Palm oil is the most commonly used vegetable oil in Wukari, and Nigeria at large, due to its numerous benefits, among which include health and nutritional. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the quality of palm oil being sold in the markets to checkmate the level of adulteration being introduced due to economic meltdown experienced in recent times. In this study, oil samples were obtained at different sale points from Wukari major markets where Physical and chemical properties were investigated using standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content ranged from 0.41% - 0.98%. Only sample OM2 was within SON permissible limit. The specific gravity ranged from 0.91g/cm3- 0.92g/cm3. Sample NM1, NM2 and OM2 were slightly above the stipulated range of SON standard. The free fatty acids range was 23.4%-82.1% for the various samples. The Peroxide value range was 10.2mg/g-21.6mg/g, with the rest being above the stipulated value of SON standard except for NM1 only. The ester value ranged within 1404.3-2529.3mgKOH/g. The saponification values range;165.4-245.4mg/g. The oil sample OM1 was below the standard range which may be due to the high amount of unsaponifiable matter, while samples NM1, NM2, NM3 and OM2 were higher, above the SON value, indicating a lower amount of unsaponifiable matter. The acid value range was 1649.7, 1731.6, 2745.3, 2191.2 and 2657.2mgKOH/g respectively. The melting points range was 82-80OC.The viscosities range was 68.72-147.74mm2/s. The iodine value range was from 1.0mg/L to 17.8mg/L. The oil samples generally indicated poor physicochemical properties in this study, implying a high level of adulteration.</p> N. Surma, G.S. Ngantem, B.N. Hikon, P.T. Shimaibo Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/653 Sun, 12 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 VARIATION IN THE SESQUITERNOID COMPOSITION OF THE VOLATILE OILS OF Annona muricata Linn. FROM SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA, CAUSED BY DIFFERENT DRYING METHODS. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/656 <p>The leaf essential oil of Annona muricata (Linn.) dried by different methods was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry. The air-dried, sun-dried and oven-dried leaves yielded 0.30 %, 0.15 % and 0.20 % of the volatile oils, respectively, whereas the percentage of oils was 0.24 % in the fresh plant material. The essential oils of A. muricata (Linn.) was composed mainly of sesquiterpenoids. Caryophyllene had the highest percentage composition in all the oils: fresh plant (25.90 %), oven-dried plant (23.20 %), sun-dried plant (30.00 %) and air-dried plant (20.30 %). The yields and chemical compositions of the volatile oils obtained from Annona muricata were affected to varying degrees by the methods of moisture removal used.</p> I. S. Njoku, M. U. Ichide, N. Ur Rahman, A. M. Khan, I. Otunomo, O. T. Asekun, O. B. Familoni Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/656 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS UPTAKE OF VEGETABLES CULTIVATED ON A DUMPSITE AT ABRAHAM ADESANYA POLYTECHNIC IJEBU-IGBO, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA. https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/641 <p>Growing and harvesting of plants on contaminated site as remediation method is a technique that may be employed for the purpose of environmental remediation. Seeds of jute (Corchorus Olitorius), spinach (Celosia argentea) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were planted on a dumpsite at Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic Ijebu Igbo, Ogun state. They were harvested five weeks after visible growth and maturation was observed. The soil from the dumpsite and harvested vegetables were dried, digested and analysed for possible absorption of heavy metals (Lead, Manganese, Copper, Cadmium and Iron) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The analyses revealed an appreciable level of concentration (mg/kg) of manganese, iron, lead, copper and cadmium in the cultivated vegetables. However, a higher absorption capacity for Fe was observed in Abelmoschus esculentus which revealed its potential as soil remediation for Fe. Movement of Cd was also strong from the soil to all the cultivated vegetables but mild for Cu, Pb and Mn. The results obtained for the cultivated vegetables showed they are presently within the safe limits of NAFDAC and European Union but may later pose a health risk to consumers if the constant practice of refuse and sewage disposal of inorganic contaminants on the dumpsite is not controlled.</p> O. A. Ajayi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/641 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A SECONDARY METABOLITE FROM THE AERIAL PARTS OF Launaea (Lactuca) taraxacifolia https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/644 <p>Launaea (Lactuca) taraxacifolia also known as wild lettuce is a medicinally important plant of the Asteraceae family. The plant was selected for this study due to its widespread use in traditional medicine and on the basis that the plant is almost going into extinct in Nigeria. The extraction was carried out by subjecting the air dried pulverized plant materials into trichloromethane solvent for a period of some days, followed by filtration and concentration. Separation and purification of the various constituents of the crude were done using thin layer and column chromatography. The mobile phases and solvent blends employed were: normal hexane, trichloromethane, ethyl ethanoate and methanol. The extraction, purification, concentration and chromatographic separations of the extracts were carried out at Post-graduates, chemistry laboratory, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. The NMR spectra analysis was investigated at Monash University Malaysia while the FTIR and GC-MS were carried out at Nanotechnology and Research Institute Malaysia. The NMR analysis was done using a Bruker VSP 500MHZ model machine. The GC-MS was performed using an Agilent 7000 model while the FTIR analysis was carried out on an Agilent 4500 series FTIR system. The structural elucidation of the proposed compound was deduced using GC-MS, FTIR, NMR (13C and 1H) and 2D COSY NMR spectra. This chemical investigation resulted in the isolation of a novel compound SB3 (Octadecahydro-10-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphtalen-3-yl)-4,4-dimethoxy-6b,12b,14b-trimethyl Picen-3-(4H,6bH,14bH)-one. Compound SB3 was isolated using 50% hexane and 50% trichloromethane at an Rf value of 0.692. The MS spectrum of compound SB3 gave a molecular ion peak at m/z 545.81, which corresponded to a molecular formula of C37H53O3.</p> B. C. Anyanwu, I. E. Otuokere, J. O. Echeme, O. U. Akoh, C. P. Njoku, O. N. Ohenhen, O. C. Ikeadim Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria https://journals.chemsociety.org.ng/index.php/jcsn/article/view/644 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000