PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF NIGERIAN KALANCHOE PINNATA (LAM.)

Kendeson A. Christiana, Kagoro L. Mary, Adelakun A. Esther

Abstract


The leaf of Kalanchoe pinnata plant is used to treat ear infection in North Central Nigeria. K. pinnata of the family Crassulaceae was subjected to phytochemical and biological evaluation. The leaves of K. pinnata plant were extracted with 70 % ethanol and the crude extract evaluated for its phytochemical profile as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging method, while the antimicrobial activity was done using the dilution method. The plant exhibited antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 40.56 and 43.90 µg/ml for ascorbic acid and alcoholic leaf extract respectively. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, saponins, and tannins while the quantitative analysis gave the total phenol content as 15.60 ± 0.001 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, total flavonoid content as 0.358 ± 0.003 mg quercetin equivalent/g and total tannin content as 0.036 ± 0.002 mg tannic acid equivalent/g. The results of the antimicrobial activity showed that the crude extract inhibited the growth of microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Aspergillus niger; while the extract was inactive against Salmonella typhi, Echerichia coli and Candida albicans. 

Key words: Kalanchoe pinnata leaf, Phytochemical profile, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Evaluation 


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Chemical Society of Nigeria